Hidden in Plain Sight

The Late War Between the United States and Great Britain(3rd edition)(Update 10/26/2013) My conference presentation was just uploaded to youtube. In it I gave a sneak preview of the Big Data research Duane and I are conducting on over 100,000 pre-1830′s texts, and suggested that the Big Data era will shed new light on our past, affecting our current cultural biases in ways our ancestors never imagined, opening the doors to more truth, and greater understanding. Once all the research is done, I will include a more concise and polished version in my AskReality Video Series.

Summary

One of the new discoveries we made with our research is the impact early American books had on shaping the Book of Mormon, particularly Gilbert Hunt’s The late war (1816).
(Update 1/17/2014) My brother Duane just published a comprehensive comparison between The Late War and The Book of Mormon, check it out: http://wordtreefoundation.github.io/thelatewar/

(Update 10/28/2013) With further analysis, it appears that The First Book of Napoleon (1809) and The Koran (1822) also had a distinct influence on The Book of Mormon, for details see the ISS analysis. So far we have conducted three independent analyses, all of which confirm the significance of these early English texts on the Book of Mormon, but we would still caution readers to wait until our findings are verified by the peer review process, before drawing any conclusions. We encourage critical examination of our claims, and personal examination of the texts revealed by the research. However, to eliminate human error and bias, we are following the next three steps to confirm the significance of this discovery:

1. Apply various, effective, independent and complementary algorithms to our 100,000+ book dataset to test the validity and significance of our first experiments.

2. Determine the most accurate algorithms from step 1, and test the error and success rate of our algorithm on tracing the origins of common texts with known origins.

3. Publish and provide all source code and methods to other researchers so that our results can be peer reviewed.

We are in the last phase of research, completing steps 1 and 2 above, and already have a number of researchers peer reviewing our work. Once the first two steps are done, we will make all code, methods and algorithms publicly available on our website and github for any researchers interested in following up with this study. If you have your own set of tools that can provide meaningful or additional insights into the data, please use them and let us know what you find.

Truth can be sliced a hundred different ways, and it will still remain true, but falsehood shrinks into the shadows, hoping never to be tested, with excuses aplenty.

-Chris Johnson

Objective

We believe creativity comes from remixing existing information in new ways, which can appear mysterious when the environmental influences are unknown. Being raised in the Latter-day Saint religion, we were particularly interested in uncovering any books besides the bible that may have played an influential role on the production of the The Book of Mormon. Our analysis on previous research surrounding the Book of Mormon origins provided very little significance due to a shortage of baseline data. There were many parallels on both sides of the debate, but nobody could indicate how significant those parallels were. In the Big Data era, we now have access to many more resources making it possible to overcome these flaws. Our main research consisted of comparing the Book of Mormon to the pre-1830′s “Big Data” set of over 100,000 books, made generously available by Archive.org, Google.com and participating Universities worldwide. More details about our methods and results are described below.

Method

In our first analysis we used “phrases” or “n-grams” as our pattern matching system. We found 4 word phrases to offer the best balance between statistical significance and noise reduction to determine textual influence or similarity between books. It is important to account for rarity when comparing textual parallels, since many phrases that appear significant at first glance are often common within their respective times, cultures and genres. Similarity alone is not sufficient to detect influence, however it can point researchers in the right direction for further analysis.

Technical Methods Explained

Here is a more technical overview of the first algorithm developed for the initial phase of our research:

For each book, create n-gram frequency counts:

  • Clean the text
    • remove non-alphabetic characters including newlines; keep spaces
    • normalize the case (e.g. lower case)
  • Slice the entire text into n-grams (i.e. “n” word sequences)
    • e.g. in our study we chose 4-grams: “i nephi having been born of” becomes ["i nephi having been", "nephi having been born", "having been born of"] etc.
  • Sort the n-grams and count their frequencies

To make a baseline of n-gram frequencies:

  • Randomly select a large sample of books (arbitrarily chosen number in our study: 5,000)
  • Add up all of the n-gram frequencies
  • Discard n-grams with frequency <= 4 (due to OCR errors, it’s common to get many, many erroneous n-grams. Incidentally, discarding 4-grams with freq < 4 is why our highest matches have a score of 0.25. Not in the Bible.)

To get a score for each book:

  • Find common n-grams between the Book of Mormon and each book
  • Eliminate from the list of common n-grams any n-grams found in the KJV or Douay-Reihms bibles
  • Take the inverse baseline frequency (e.g. if the phrase “having been born of” shows up 6 times in all of the books sampled for the baseline, then the inverse baseline frequency would be 1/6 = 0.167)
  • Sum all inverse baseline frequencies for common n-grams to get a “score”
  • Finally, divide the score by the total word count of each book (since larger books will, by random chance, have more matches). The result is a score that can be used to rank books by similarity.

To rank all books:

  • Use the score / wordcount
  • Exclude small books whose signal-to-noise ratio is low (“small” was arbitrarily defined as 15,000 words in our study).

Validity of phrase matching

Using the weighted phrase matching method described above, we tested a popular book, Pride and Prejudice in our dataset to see if phrase matching was a valid way of determining similarity. This first test indicated that Pride and Prejudice was significantly related to Sense and Sensibility, out of all other books in our 100,000+ sample. This match was in fact significant, because we know both books were authored by Jane Austen around the same time. In this case the similarity was due to common influence. Next we attempted to trace the influence of previous author’s books on Jane Austen’s mind by ranking prior books against Pride and Prejudice. Out of our 100,000+ sample, we found that The officer’s daughter (1810) had the highest score, ranking 0.20. When we used this method to find which book most likely influenced her earliest writings (prior to 1787), we found Chit-chat: or, Natural characters, and the manners of real life (1755) to be the highest possible influencer in the sample, scoring 0.03 which was 6% higher than the next ranked influencer, which may indicate significance. Similarity matching alone is limited in its ability to infer direct influence because it does not indicate causation, and the similarities found in a large enough sample could be due to chance circumstance, but because the matches were weighted by rarity, and the score indicated a high number of co-occurring rare phrases, it is more probable that the similarities in this case suggest direct, indirect or common environmental influences. We attempted to trace many other texts and found ranges between 0.03 and 0.7 to be normal (using our UMS1 scoring algorithm), while anything higher than 1 tended towards plagiarism or direct quoting, and matches lower than 0.01 meant we could not find a significant source of influence.

Results

1. Early Experiments (Including Experiment #36)

In the first few experiments done on the Book of Mormon, we noticed the KJV and DR bible phrases significantly increased the noise and difficulty of finding textual transmission, this was due to the sheer number of books influenced by the bible, along with all the KJV and DR bible material in The Book of Mormon. To counter this, we filtered out the phrases that occurred in both the KJV Bible, DR Bible and The Book of Mormon (for all subsequent experiments until #84 when we added ISS filtering). The bible filtering allowed us to see past the bible in The Book of Mormon, and lead us to Experiment #36 which is when we made “The late war” discovery, a school text book printed for the use of young students in New York schools around 1816 – 1819. We were surprised to see such a likely source text rise to the top of over 100,000 books. What did it contain? Those familiar with The Book of Mormon may recognize the similarities:

1 NOW it came to pass, in the one thousand eight hundred and twelfth year of the Christian era, and in the thirty and sixth year after the people of the provinces of Columbia bad declared themselves a free and independent nation;

2 That in the sixth month of the same year, on the first day of the month, the chief Governor, whom the people had chosen to rule over the land of Columbia.

(Full Text)

We noticed classic Book of Mormon themes in the Late war such as:

  1. Devices of “curious workmanship” in relation to boats and weapons.
  2. A “stripling” soldier and “two thousand hardy men, who were called volunteers, because they fought freely for their country … were … men of dauntless courage.
  3. Fortifications, “the people began to fortify themselves and entrench the high Places round about the city
  4. Objects made “partly of brass and partly of iron, and were cunningly contrived with curious works, like unto a clock ; and as it were a large ball
  5. Three Indian Prophets
  6. A mention of “elephants” in relation to ancient America (a possible anachronism).

The algorithm itself found many rare non-biblical phrases including:

  1. the wilderness round about
  2. governor of the land
  3. ruler over this people
  4. they were exceedingly rejoiced
  5. had gathered themselves together
  6. crossed the waters of
  7. the fair daughters of
  8. chief captains of the
  9. against them and slew
  10. battle against the king
  11. the beauty thereof was
  12. And hundreds more.

2. Phylogenetic Experiments: Tracing Texts Back in Time

We noticed The First Book of Napoleon (1809) had a high ranking when compared against The Book of Mormon (1830) in many tests, but it also had a high ranking when compared to The late war (1816) which lead us to explore the genetic (hereditary) relationships of each of the top texts related to the Book of Mormon. We were interested in tracing them back to their last common ancestor, as well as look forwards in time to find derivative texts. (Note: These results are very preliminary as we are still fairly limited in tracing texts into the early 1700′s)

To begin tracing texts we started using a various comparison algorithms based on the Uniform Match Scores. We developed three algorithms called UMS1, UMS2, and UMS3 for comparing relative scores between any two texts so that we could trace relative genetic influence. Here are the three methods:

UMS1: (s*s)/(wc1/wc2) x M
UMS2: s/(wc1*wc2) x M
UMS3: s(wc1+wc2) x M

(s=score,wc1=Wordcount 1, wc2=Wordcount 2, M = to normalize the range)

By conducting multiple experiments on many related texts we were able to compare relative distance between each text and chart their most probable heredetary relationships based on distance. See Fig. 1 below to see the most likely direction of textual transmission.

Our results point to The First Book of Napoleon influencing the creation of The late war, between the United States and Great Britain, from June 1812, to February 1815 : written in the ancient historical style (1816) by Gilbert J. Hunt, which was adapted for the use of schools in New York. Our preliminary analysis is showing that The late war likely inspired the creation of quite a few books between 1820-1830, significantly impacting these three books, among other war books:

1) The Book of Nullification (1830)
2) The Book of Mormon (1830)
3) Chronicles of Eri (1822)

Using UMS1 scores, we were able to determine that Hunt’s The late war transmitted textual influence to The Book of Nullification highest (0.37), followed by The Book of Mormon (0.24), and to a lesser extent Chronicles of Eri (0.08). The influence from The First Book of Napoleon on Hunt’s The late war was 0.06. Each of these scores were significantly higher than random baseline scores which were below 0.01, and these scores were higher than any other texts in the dataset indicating possible textual transmission, or common influence.

FIG. 1 Our early Phylogenetic Analysis revealed The late war influenced many derivative works.

FIG. 1 Our early Phylogenetic Analysis revealed The late war influenced many derivative works.

Note: The Book of Napoleon also showed up as possibly influencing The Book of Mormon directly but we did not initially have enough evidence to confirm the connection until we added the ISS filtering. We later discovered that The First Book of Napoleon had an independent influence on The Book of Mormon, see Fig. 3 in the ISS analysis below.

When we conducted further experiments on The Book of Nullification (1830) and The Book of Mormon (1830), we found that both books shared significant common heritage to The late war, a school textbook used in the 1820′s and that both books were highly similar to each other due to common cultural influences at the time of writing, scoring a significant 0.42. We conclude that The Book of Nullification and The Book of Mormon were significantly influenced by their time and place in history.

3. Baseline Analysis

To determine relative distance to other books we plotted a number of books against the baseline. The scatter plot below shows the results from experiment #36, with 100,000+ books plotted in relatedness to the Book of Mormon, highlighting several books of interest (click to view larger image):

( FIG. 2 100,000+ BOOKS VISUALIZED, SLICED, WEIGHTED AND COMPARED )

EXPLANATION OF THE X AXIS:

4grams: n-grams are slices of sentences or texts, sliced into “n” words. Turning a sentence or text into 4grams, for example, looks like this… we’ll take the beginning of 1st Nephi as an example: “i nephi having been born of goodly”. This becomes four 4grams: ["i nephi having been", "nephi having been born", "having been born of", "been born of goodly"]. Once you slice it up, you then do a frequency count to find out how many times each n-gram shows up in a text. The frequency is used to calculate the baseline.

Baseline-weighted: this means we took a (somewhat large) random sample of books prior to 1830 and figured out what four-word phrases (“4-grams”) occur frequently and which occur infrequently. That way, we can weight the matches in our search and know which 4grams are more important. Chris explained this in his presentation (which will soon be published) like this: if you find the two-word phrase “Millennium Falcon” in a book, and another two-word phrase, “it is” in a book, the former should matter a lot more than the latter. Why? Because almost every book in the world contains the 2-gram (bigram) “it is” but only a select few have “Millennium Falcon”. So, what does a “weighted” value look like? It’s just the inverse of the baseline frequency, i.e. 1.0/baseline-frequency. Using the example above: if “it is” occurs 5,847,361 in a sample of 5,000 pre-1830 books (which it does in our baseline sample) then the “weighted value” of the match is 1.0/5,847,361 or 0.000000171. Let’s say “Millennium Falcon”, on the other hand, occurs only one time in all of our sampled pre-1830 literature. Then, it would have a score of 1.0/1.0 = 1.0. So finding a “Millennium Falcon” match between the Book of Mormon and another book would be more than 5 million times more important. (Of course, Millennium Falcon does not occur in the Book of Mormon, but it would be cool if it did…)

Non-biblical: This means that in every comparison that we did between a book and the Book of Mormon, we removed any matches that were also in the KJV or Douay-Reihms bibles. The result is that the strengths of the relationships in this graph are not dependent on the bible–it is content unique to these books (or their predecessors) that is causing them to show connection.

4. ISS Filtering Experiments and Further Analysis

In the second phase of our research, we began applying tools that could validate or invalidate our findings and add clarity to see how significant “The late war” discovery was in relation to The Book of Mormon. We began using an independent algorithm which was not based on similarity scores, but on distinct influence. (See Fig. 3)

The “Iterative Source Separation” (ISS) algorithm, is an independent way of verifying and cross checking the significance of our initial results. With the ISS algorithm we do not need to use a KJV/DR filter like we did in our first experiment, but it takes a lot more processing power. Instead of detecting similarity based on matches, this algorithm reveals dependency by detecting distinct influence. It works by removing each of the top influencers for the text, one at a time from each comparison calculation in the sample, and measuring the resultant difference from baseline in the Uniform Match Scores. The cumulative differences add up over the entire sample, iteratively revealing possible textual transmission. The more influential texts rise to the top, while the less influential texts erode into insignificance (see Fig. 3). The algorithm processes the samples round after round until it reaches a level of statistical certainty.

If it were true that a book did not depend on prior works, we would not expect a distinct ISS gap to appear by chance, however a gap is clearly visible in this case, and appears statistically relevant.

ISS gap / Noise Reduction

ISS gap – Noise reduction based on removing “genre” similarity

While our full analysis is not yet complete, we are releasing the preliminary results (after 400 iterations) to show that a possible signal of influence has been detected, and it is coming from at least 4 or 5 books:

iterative_source_separation_r400_askreality

FIG. 3.1 ISS Reveals top influencers on The Book of Mormon


Texts Highlighted By ISS:

1. The Koran (1822)

The connections between the 1822 Koran and The Book of Mormon are too numerous to list. The Book of Mormon uses hundreds of rare 2grams, 3grams, 4grams, 5grams, 6grams and 7grams from the Koran, that do not show up in the bible. Examples:

  1. the words which he shall speak
  2. before god at the last day
  3. comprehendeth all things
  4. covenanted with abraham
  5. the covenant which he hath made with
  6. unto them there is no god
  7. created the heavens and the earth and
  8. the true believers
  9. to drive them out of the land
  10. things which are pleasing unto god
  11. put it into the hearts of
  12. by the hair of the head and
  13. (hundreds more)

A histogram analysis of The Koran and The late war reveal their unique contributions to the content in The Book of Mormon (click to expand):

Koran-The-late-war-influence

2. The First Book of Napoleon (1809)

The First Book of Napoleon has hundreds of Book of Mormon parallels that do not show up in the Bible, here are just a few examples from the first few pages, notice the sequence:

condemn not the (writing) … an accountthe First Book of Napoleonupon the face of the earthit came to passthe landtheir inheritances their gold and silver andthe commandments of the Lord the foolish imaginations of their heartssmall in statureJerusalembecause of the perverse wickedness of the people
-Parallels in sequence, The First Book of Napoleon (from the first pages)

 

condemn not the (writing) … an account the First Book of Nephiupon the face of the earthit came to passthe landhis inheritance and his gold and his silver andthe commandments of the Lordthe foolish imaginations of his heartlarge in statureJerusalembecause of the wickedness of the people
-Parallels in sequence, Book of Mormon / The First Book of Nephi (from the first pages)

 

… again opened his mouth and spake, and said unto them
-TFBoN 6:15 

 … again opened his mouth and began to speak unto them
-Mosiah 4:4

 

battle was fought in the land of Calabria
-TFBoN 8:17

battle which was fought in the land of Zarahemla
-Alma 3:20

3. The late war (1816)

This book is highlighted from our initial discovery, please see the data below.

4. The Rights of Christ (1815)

The fourth text in the ISS ranking algorithm “The Rights of Christ” (1815) is poorly scanned, with many OCR errors, so its significance may be higher than shown. However, independent of our machine analysis, we noticed the text starts in a similar way as 1 Nephi does, which may confirm its significance:

I, (author), (was) born of (righteous) parents …
- Parallels emphasized from The Rights of Christ (1815)

I, (author), (was) born of (righteous) parents,
- Parallels emphasized from 1 Ne. Book of Mormon (1830)

Please note: Other than bible quotes, the data does not suggest plagiarism, but rather authorship, or in other words “remixing” of existing information.

 

Weaknesses of this study

1. We don’t have enough baseline data to significantly prove that 4 grams are better than 3 grams or 2 grams for a textual transmission analysis. For example, in a 2 gram analysis we noticed that The First Book of Napoleon showed up as the most likely influencer for The Book of Mormon. We are currently investigating this possibility, but need to improve the accuracy of our tools to make firmer conclusions. One way we believe we can do this, is by combining multiple textual transmission algorithms to increase the clarity of the results. (update 10/25/2013): This problem may have been overcome by the new ISS algrorithm, which improves clarity and cross checks the significance of the similarity algorithm.

2. We also had to remove smaller books (under 15,000 words) because our current methods cannot determine significance on smaller samples reliably, meaning there is a possibility that smaller works, while being influential have been ignored in our analysis.(update 10/25/2013): This problem may have been overcome by the new ISS algrorithm, we are currently confirming this.

3. OCR errors in the Google and university scans are likely to have a significant impact on the noise levels in this analysis. In the future we would like to build tools that can accurately remove OCR errors from these texts. (update 10/25/2013): We are working on an algorithm that can partially compensate for the OCR errors.

4. Additionally, many books prior to the 1800′s have an old English version of the letter “s” showing up as the letter “f” in many words from the OCR scans, limiting the accuracy of the results that can be obtained for older books, especially in the 1700′s.

5. We currently have 221,074 books in our database and growing, but we don’t believe we have all the books between 1500 and 1830, so it is possible that future research will turn up more significant books related to the books analyzed in this study.

6. Textual influence can also happen from cultural and verbal sources which are impossible for us to currently analyze.

7. It is also important to note that a high similarity between two books do not necessarily indicate influence, but may suggest both books share common influences. (update 10/25/2013) This problem has largely been overcome by the new ISS algrorithm.

8. It is possible that the removal of the KJV and DR Bibles also decreased our ability to trace significant source texts that rely on unique combinations of biblical material. (update 10/25/2013) This problem has been overcome by the new ISS algrorithm.

9. Additionally we may be underestimating the possibility of randomly mutated or culturally influenced KJV/DR material co-occurring independently of one another, which may lead to the detection of textual transmissions that appear significant, but are actually false positives. We are already working on much more accurate tools that do not require the removal of the KJV or DR, and can better detect independent influence via source separation rather than relying on similarity between texts. These results will be available in a future publication. (update 10/25/2013: This problem has partially been overcome by the new ISS algrorithm which does not require the removal of Bible phrases in the comparison)

10. Certain baseline data such as the false positive rate of our tools are still lacking. For example it is difficult to answer: “How often will our algorithm turn up the wrong books?” We don’t know, so we wish to test our tools on as many books as possible, especially a) mystery texts where influence or authorship is unknown b) books with known influences, so that we can determine accuracy and c) books that are translated from another culture, time, language or place so that we can see how distantly connected a real Urantia or Koran text might look. If you know of any pre-1840 books that fit the above points, please contact me so I can add it to our test list.

Conclusion

We cannot make any certain conclusions until the research is complete. We believe that by overcoming the weaknesses of our current tools, we will be able to dig deeper into history, enabling us to reveal more about the origins of many books, and clarify many enigmas.

Post Presentation Responses:

I have not fully read Hunt’s The late war, but within hours of our discovery and presentation, I have seen some researchers from around the web discover compelling parallels which were not uncovered in our initial analysis. The evidence is now mounting across the web. Here is one example, notice the sequence of the parallels:

Ether 9:17-19:

17 Having all manner of fruit, and of grain, and of silks, and of fine linen, and of (1) gold, and of silver, and of precious things;
18 And also (2) all manner of cattle, of oxen, and cows, and of sheep, and of swine, and of goats, and also many other kinds of (3) animals which were (4) useful for the food of man.
19 And they also had horses, and asses, and there were elephants and cureloms and cumoms; all of which were useful unto man, and (5) more especially (6) the elephants and cureloms and cumoms.

The Late War 20:11-16:

11 Now the land of Columbia is a most plentiful land, yielding (1) gold and silver, and brass and iron abundantly.
12 Likewise, (2) all manner of (3) creatures which are (4) used for food, and herbs and fruits of the earth:
13 From the red cherry, and the rosy peach (…)
14 And from the small insect, that cheateth the microscopic eye, to the huge mammoth (…)
15 Now the heighth of a mammoth is (…)
16 It is (5) more wonderful than (6) the elephant; and the history thereof, is it not recorded in the book of Jefferson, the scribe ?

 

(added 10/22/2013)

I just found out that Rick Grunder did an analysis on The Late War in 2008, which seems to indicate that many if not most of the non-biblical semetic patterns that occur in the Book of Mormon also show up in The late war. Grunder’s work is independent of our research, and may confirm the importance of this discovery. Additional details can be found in his article.

 

(added 10/25/2013)

I just found out that Sandra & Jerald Tanner also mentioned this book in their publication.

 

 

Name Experiment 36
Dates 1500 – 1830
Book The Book of Mormon (1830)
(Excluding) King James Version & Douay Rheims (Catholic) Bible
Sample Size 135,270 Books
Mean Score 0.16
Noise Filter (Min. Word Count) 15000 Words
Researchers Chris Johnson / Duane Johnson, October 19th 2013 www.askreality.com
Rank Score / WC Wordcount Book Title archive.org ID Year
1 4.23349635696242 (See Data) 55378 The late war, between the United States and Great Britain, from June 1812, to February 1815 : written in the ancient historical style latewarbetween_00hunt 1816
2 3.95478188570214 20346 Copies of letters sent to the clergy of Exeter, from 1796 to 1800 copiesofletterss00sout 1813
3 3.82644606513838 22076 The First Book of Napoleon, the Tyrant of the Earth: Written in the 5813th Year of the World … firstbooknapole00gruagoog 1809
4 3.80041120245052 16522 From this publication the readers may discern what is hastening upon the land fromthispublicat00sout 1808
5 3.44461658050915 17015 The rights of Christ according to the principles and doctrines of the Children of Peace [microform] cihm_62453 1815
6 3.12913680433068 50566 Late war, between the United States and Great Britain, from June, 1812, to February, 1815 latewarbetweenun00inhunt 1819
7 2.91099329998092 55358 The late war, between the United States and Great Britain, from June 1812, to February 1815 : written in the ancient historical style latewarbetweenun00hunt 1816
8 2.78906445112866 176013 The holy Koran; commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed. Translated from the original Arabic, and with the former translations diligently compared and revised holykorancommonl00londuoft 1822
9 2.77221281953629 176117 The Holy Koran, commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed holykorancommonlnp 1822
10 2.70519544809338 177791 The Koran, commonly called the Alkoran of Mohammed korancommonlycal1800sale 1800
11 2.67669481581525 50668 The historical reader; containing “The late war between the United States and Great Britain, from June, 1812, to February, 1815 readercontain00hunt 1819
12 2.62021251469249 35298 The harmony of the three commissions : or, None but Christ … harmonyofthreeco00tomkiala 1822
13 2.61859221342337 49831 The late war between the United States and Great Britain from June, 1812, to February 1815 … latewarbetweenunusb00hunt 1819
14 2.55524450131095 30387 Strength in weakness manifest : in the life, various trials, and Christian testimony, of that faithful servant and handmaid of the Lord, Elizabeth Stirredge … strengthinweakne00stir 1810
15 2.47239250582756 150751 The Apocryphal New Testament, being all the Gospels, Epistles, and other pieces now extant, attributed in the first four centuries to Jesus Christ, his Apostles, and their companions and not included in the New Testament by its compilers; apocryphalnewtes00honeuoft 1820
16 2.43652507791248 49492 The historical reader; containing “The late war between the United States and Great Britain from June, 1812, to February, 1815 historicalreader00huntgil 1819
17 2.4329330878842 97825 An exposition upon the two Epistles of the Apostle St. Paul to the Thessalonians.. expositionupontw00jewe 1811
18 2.43162121507821 113639 The genuine epistles of the Apostical Fathers, St. Barnabas, St. Ignatius, St. Clement, St. Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the martyrdoms of St. Ignatius and St. Polycarp : Written by those who were present at their sufferings … genuineepistlesofshe00wake 1799
19 2.42935673563181 53801 The historical reader [microform] : containing “The late war between the United States and Great Britain, from June, 1812, to February, 1815, written in the ancient historical style” : altered and adapted for use in schools throughout the United States cihm_48806 1817
20 2.41788948603769 142356 The apocryphal New Testament : being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces now extant, attributed in the first four centuries to Jesus Christ, His apostles, and their companions, and not included in the New Testament by its compilers apocryphalnewte00hone 1820
21 2.38530225418339 154008 The Christian experiences, gospel labours and writings christianexperie00cris 1822
22 2.3774711833014 31186 Sermons delivered by Elias Hicks & Edward Hicks : in Friends’ Meetings, New-York, in 5th month, 1825 : sermonsdelivered00hick 1825
23 2.34112028009247 61676 The late war between the United States and Great Britain [microform] : from June 1812 to February 1815, written in the ancient historical style cihm_28205 1816
24 2.31302012192914 141821 The apocryphal New Testament, being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces now extant, attributed in the first four centuries to Jesus Christ, His Apostles, and their companions and not included in the New Testament cu31924011784018 1820
25 2.29375308931454 143310 The Apocryphal New Testament : being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces new extant, atrributed in the first four centuries to Jesus Christ, his Apostles, and their companions, and not included in the New Testament, by its compilers ; translated, and now first collected into one volume, with prefaces and tables, and various notes and references apocryphalnewtes00lond 1821
26 2.28423696175108 141862 The apocryphal New Testament, being all the Gospels, Epistles, and other pieces now extant attributed in the first four centuries to Jesus Christ, his apostles, and their companions and not included in the New Testament, by its compilers: Translated from the original tongues and now first collected into one volume apocryphalnew00lond 1820
27 2.23731206264348 141731 The apocryphal New Testament, being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces now extant; apocryphalnewte01unkngoog 1820
28 2.19950412463523 31522 Sermons Delivered by Elias Hicks & Edward Hicks: In Friends’ Meetings, New-York, in 5th Month, 1825 sermonsdelivere00goulgoog 1825
29 2.16183130211669 84747 The righteousness of the Lord’s judgments asserted : or, A call to such as love to fare sumptuously every day … a hint to merchants, traders, and lawyers ; and to such as (in Babel’s language) are called the nobility and gentry ; but above all, to those called clergy ; if so be they may be provoked to jealousy, that even some of them may yet be aroused to look to their foundation ; also, an earnest expostulation with such as speak of emancipation ; and an appeal to the rulers of these realms a583309900goouuoft 1822
30 2.14989666933222 17947 A solemn warning to all the dwellers upon earth, given forth in obedience to the express command of the Lord God, as communicated by Him, in several extraordinary visions and miraculous revelations, confirmed by sundry plain but wonderful signs, unto Nimrod Hughes, of the county of Washington, in Virginia. Upon whom the awful duty of making this publication has been laid and enforced, by many admonitions and severe chastisements of the Lord, for the space of ten months and nine days of unjust and close confinement in the prison of Abingdon, wherein he was shewn that the certain destruction of one third of mankind, as foretold in the Scriptures, must take place on the fourth day of June, 1812 solemnwarningtoa00hugh 1812
31 2.13627877619715 61496 Bible history biblehistoryfor00unkngoog 1814
32 2.10365017352421 82446 Sermons, or declarations sermonsordeclara00dews 1824
33 2.09468757116166 87923 Christ’s sudden and certain appearance to judgment. christssuddencer00vinc 1823
34 2.07417461418521 142118 The apocryphal New Testament, being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces now extant; apocryphalnewte00wakegoog 1820
35 2.03439742495043 143389 The Apocryphal New Testament apocryphalnewte02wakegoog 1820
36 2.02540623154325 77730 Sermons by Thomas Wetherald and Elias Hicks delivered during the Yearly Meeting of Friends in the city of New York, June 1826 sermonsbythomasw00weth 1826
37 2.0249548545187 101347 Memoirs of the life of Stephen Crisp, with selections from his works memoirsoflifeof00tuke 1824
38 2.01947545018626 137946 The genuine epistles of the Apostical Fathers, St. Barnabas, St. Ignatius, St. Clement, St. Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the martyrdoms of St. Ignatius and St. Polycarp : Written by those who were present at their sufferings … genuineepist00wake 1810
39 1.99399560333452 101537 Selections from the Homilies of the Protestant Episcopal Church : with a preface by the Rt. Rev. William Meade, D.D selectionsfromho00mead 1809
40 1.99177321308011 138090 The genuine epistles of the Apostolical Fathers, : St. Barnabas, St. Ignatius, St. Clement, St. Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the martyrdoms of St. Ignatius and St. Polycarp, genuineepistleso01wake 1810
41 1.96628063266326 192463 The Sermons of the Right Reverend Father in God, and Constant Martyr of Jesus Christ, Hugh … sermonsrightrev01watkgoog 1824
42 1.96031654465669 180552 A journal or historical account of the life, travels, sufferings, Christian experiences, and labour of love, in the work of the ministry, of that ancient, eminent, and faithful servant of Jesus Christ, George Fox worksgeorgefox03foxgoog 1765
43 1.94227426023866 128554 Chronicles of Eri : being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber: or, the Irish people chroniclesoferib02ocon 1822
44 1.94206913394971 128568 Chronicles of Eri; being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber: or, the Irish people; translated from the original manuscripts in the Phoenician dialect of the Scythian language chroniclesoferib02oconuoft 1822
45 1.92467723772014 227217 Life and Works: A Collection of Pamphlets lifeandworksaco03soutgoog 1806
46 1.92459357894167 221655 Thirty-four sermons on the most interesting doctrines of the gospel by that eminently great divine and reformer, Martion Luther : to which are prefixed memoirs of [Luther's] life thirtyfoursermon00luth 1816
47 1.92021391607569 129783 The Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers: St. Barnabas, St. Ignatius, St. Clement, St … genuineepistles00wakegoog 1817
48 1.91744997365076 33966 The unbelief of st. Thomas the apostle, laid open, for the comfort of all that desire to believe … unbeliefstthoma00bowngoog 1817
49 1.90404369071287 194925 Forty-eight select sermons fortyeightselect00welc 1811
50 1.89607858992123 102447 A True Interpretation of All the Chief Texts, and Mysterious Sayings and Visions Opened, of the … atrueinterpreta00mugggoog 1808
51 1.89396209671551 179388 A true interpretation of the eleventh chapter of the Revelation of St. John trueinterpretati00mugg 1753
52 1.87880101975607 33530 An answer to the world : for putting in print a book in 1804, called Copies and parts of copies of letters and communications, written from Joanna Southcott, and transmitted by Miss Townley to Mr. Sharp in London … answertoworldfor00shar 1806
53 1.87161374690698 50600 An epitome of the holy Bible anepitomeholybi00hortgoog 1822
54 1.84704169884369 101005 Memoirs of the life of Stephen Crisp / with selections from his works. memoirsoflifeofs00tuke 1824
55 1.82547508200466 58468 Devotional somnium, or, A collection of prayers and exhortations, uttered by Miss Rachel Baker : in the city of New-York, in the winter of 1815, during her abstracted and unconscious state : to which pious and unprecedented exercises are prefixed, an account of her life, with the manner in which she became powerful in praise to God, and addresses to man ; together with a view of that faculty of the human mind which is intermediate between sleeping and waking : the facts attested by the most respectable divines, physicians, and literary gentlemen : and the discourses correctly taken by clerical stenographers 2551046R.nlm.nih.gov 1815
56 1.80425598967245 139357 The Apocryphal New Testament: Being All the Gospels, Epistles, and Other Pieces Now Extant … apocryphalnewte00jonegoog 1824
57 1.79081682558631 58863 Devotional somnium, or, A collection of prayers and exhortations, uttered by Miss Rachel Baker : in the city of New-York, in the winter of 1815, during her abstracted and unconscious state ; to which pious and unprecedented exercises is prefixed, an account of her life, with the manner in which she became powerful in praise to God and addresses to man ; together with a view of that faculty of the human mind which is intermediate between sleeping and waking ; the facts, attested by the most respectable divines, physicians, and literary gentlemen ; and the discourses, correctly noted by clerical stenographers 2551047R.nlm.nih.gov 1815
58 1.7847516769249 83109 A series of extemporaneous discourses : delivered in the several meetings of the Society of Friends .. seriesofextempo00hick 1825
59 1.78377220685699 71358 Sermons by Thomas Wetherald and Elias Hicks Delivered During the Yearly Meeting of Friends in … sermonsbythomas00hickgoog 1826
60 1.78313406742377 82636 A series of extemporaneous discourses : delivered in the several meetings of the Society of Friends, in Philadelphia, Germantown, Abington, Byberry, Newtown, Falls, and Trenton seriesofextempor00hick 1825
61 1.76235772958931 65946 Poor Peter’s call to his children : and to all others who can hear and believe poorpeterscallto00clem 1812
62 1.74653178546823 82547 A series of extemporaneous discourses .. seriesofextempor01hick 1825
63 1.72499053141423 147523 A Christian library (Volume 1): consisting of extracts from and abridgements of the choicest pieces of practical divinity which have been published in the English tongue 06969185.1.emory.edu 1819
64 1.72383765728504 189051 Chronicle of the Cid, from the Spanish: chroniclecidfro00cidgoog 1808
65 1.7224153461067 185507 The Holy Bible : containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly called the Old and New Testament holybiblecontain03thom 1808
66 1.72207076882744 213158 Select Works of Martin Luther: An Offering to the Church of God in “the Last Days” … selectworksmart00colegoog 1826
67 1.71753018106852 345996 A Collection of lectures and sermons : preached upon several subjects, mostly in the time of the persecution … collectionoflectu00guth 1809
68 1.70346843263807 20465 A sermon preached at the meeting house of the people called Quakers, in Grace Church Street, London, by Thomas Story (some time recorder of Philadelphia,) September the twenty-fifth, 1737, together with corresponding extracts from those of Elias Hicks, that were delivered, in and near this city, in 1824. The same being arranged in a method, which exhibits, at one view, by juxta-position, the spirit and tenor of both. With an appendix containing the original sermon of George Fox sermonpreachedat00stor 1825
69 1.68042511077254 21813 Sermons on the Mosaic account of the creation, the serpent’s temptation to our first parents, and on their exclusion from the garden of Eden sermonsonmosaica00westrich 1809
70 1.6803251891672 132156 Water baptism, circumcision, and the Lord’s supper, dissected and analized : shewing the danger of resting in those signs … To which is added, A concise history of the Anabaptists, or Baptists .. waterbaptismcirc00burr 1816
71 1.67327792514254 305320 A commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians commentaryonstpa00luthuoft 1810
72 1.658092870229 21051 Seven sermons and a prayer, preached at the meetings of the Religious Society of Friends, in America and England .. sevensermonsandp00save 1808
73 1.65797035794538 91747 Letters of Isaac Penington : an eminent minister of the gospel in the Society of Friends, which he joined about the year 1658 lettersofisaacpe00peni 1828
74 1.65228959380766 19309 A serious call in Christian love, to all people, to turn to the spirit of Christ in themselves … : With some observations on the following heads: I. The universality of God’s love, in sending his son to die for all men. II. The holy scriptures. III. Worship. IV. Baptism. V. The supper. VI. Perfection. VII. The resurrection. VIII. Swearing seriouscallinchr00holm 1806
75 1.65175098812123 215971 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of … aselectionfromw04richgoog 1817
76 1.64338011074942 231086 New-England judged, by the spirit of the Lord : In two parts. First, containing a brief relation of the sufferings of the people call’d Quakers in New-England, from the time of their first arrival there, in the year 1656, to the year 1660 … In answer to the declaration of their persecutors apologizing for the same, MDCLIX. Second part, being a farther relation of the cruel and bloody sufferings of the people call’d Quakers in New-England, continued from anno 1660, to anno 1665. Beginning with the sufferings of William Leddra, whom they put to death newenglandjudged00bishuoft 1703
77 1.63263963686688 21285 Short compilation of the extraordinary life and writings of Thomas Say : in which is faithfully copied, from the original manuscript, the uncommon vision, which he had when a young man shortcompilation00sayt 1805
78 1.62852152348402 182585 A volume of spiritual epistles, being the copies of several letters written by the two last prophets and messengers of God, John Reeve and Lodowicke Muggleton; containing variety of spiritual revelations, and deep mysteries, manifesting to the elect seed the prerogative power of a true prophet.. volumeofspiritua00reeviala 1820
79 1.6254744533539 287651 The works of the Reverend and pious Mr. Andrew Gray, late minister of the Gospel in Glasgow .. workndp00gray 1813
80 1.61681042023827 36409 The narrative of Levi Hathaway : giving an account of his life, experience, call to the ministry of the gospel of the Son of God, and travels as such to the present time narrativeoflevih00hath 1820
81 1.61574466849297 130199 Chronicles of Eri: Being the History of the Gaal Sciot Iber: Or, the Irish … chronicleseribe00ocogoog 1822
82 1.61008753754532 215692 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of … aselectionfromw02richgoog 1817
83 1.60799803659922 196310 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of … aselectionfromw08richgoog 1817
84 1.5939446186466 33746 Strength in weakness manifest : in the life, various trials, and Christian testimony, of that faithful servant and handmaid of the Lord, Elizabeth Stirredge … strengthinweakne00instir 1746
85 1.59387124509789 126674 Chronicles of Eri: Or, the Irish People; chronicleserior00ocogoog 1822
86 1.59249906419317 56345 The trial of spirits, both in teachers and hearers : Wherein is held forth the clear discovery, and certain downfall, of the carnal and anti-Christian clergy of these nations. Testified from the word of God, to the University congregation in Cambridge trialofspiritsbo00dell 1817
87 1.59142258795037 205588 Piety promoted, in a collection of dying sayings of many of the poeple called Quakers; pietypromotedinc00tomk 1812
88 1.5908017302804 100912 Memoirs of the life of Stephen Crisp, with selections from his works memoirslifestep00crisgoog 1824
89 1.58613305104649 64104 Lectures on the Gospel of st. Matthew … on the early parts of the Bible, and on the Ten … lecturesongospe00hartgoog 1824
90 1.58314220610324 61223 The pilgrimage of Theophilus to the City of God pilgrimageoftheo00buttrich 1812
91 1.57119166217042 220764 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of … aselectionfromw01richgoog 1817
92 1.56206288196594 189522 Chronicle of the Cid chronicleofcid00sout 1808
93 1.55485582317245 49123 Some account of the life, service and suffering of an early servant and minister of Christ, Joseph Coale.. someaccountoflif00coal 1706
94 1.55200240129076 206771 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of … aselectionfromw05richgoog 1817
95 1.54993866326807 221497 The Koran: Commonly Called the Alcoran of Mohammed korancommonlyca00unkngoog 1821
96 1.53949958086121 210061 Complete commentary on the first twenty-two Psalms completecommenta02luth 1826
97 1.53200672751541 23896 The Muggletonian principles prevailing : being an answer in full to a scandalous and malicious pamphlet entitled a True representation of the absurd and mischievous principles of the sect called Muggletonians … muggletonianprin00tomkiala 1822
98 1.52591177558571 200214 Life and Works: A Collection of Pamphlets lifeandworksaco01soutgoog 1804
99 1.52562501835368 131771 The true explanation of the Bible, revealed by divine communications to Joanna Southcott; to which are added letters to and from the Rev. Mr. Pomeroy trueexplanationo00soutiala 1804
100 1.52069490467605 30152 Sacra privata : the private meditations and prayers of the Right Rev. Thomas Wilson, D.D., bishop of Sodor and Man, accommodated to general use sacraprivatapriv00wilsrich 1808
101 1.51279113159081 17146 Scripture history, abridged : in which it is designed to give children such a taste of the writings of the inspired penmen, as may engage them diligently to study the Sacred Scriptures scripturehistory00wate 1828
102 1.5114936907641 137682 Sermons, lectures, and occasional discourses sermonslectures01irvigoog 1828
103 1.50879782546079 190871 Works works00soutgoog 1813
104 1.50849562608917 63043 Isaiah: A New Translation: with a Preliminary Dissertation and Notes … isaiahanewtrans01lowtgoog 1822
105 1.49456159044823 252970 Sermons or homilies appointed to be read in churches in the time of Queen Elizabeth of famous memory, to which are annexed The Thirty-nine articles of the United Church of England and Ireland, and the constitutions and canons ecclesiastical sermonsorhomilie00churuoft 1821
106 1.49151297359523 72322 Sermons on several occasions sermonsonseveral02wesl 1810
107 1.48659301072522 224557 Sermons: Or, Homilies sermonsorhomili00englgoog 1815
108 1.48512617963648 148419 A Christian library (Volume 2): consisting of extracts from and abridgements of the choicest pieces of practical divinity which have been published in the English tongue 06969185.1324.emory.edu 1819
109 1.47224627352267 197849 The life and writings of Theophilus R. Gates .. lifewritingsofth00gate 1818
110 1.47220699948904 105798 The Quaker, being a series of sermons by members of the Society of Friends .. quakerbeingserie01goul 1827
111 1.47025578381952 130109 Truth’s triumph : or, A witness to the two witnesses from that unfolded parable of Our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, the High and mighty God : Matthew, chap. 13, verse 30 to 42 … truthstriumphorw00tomkiala 1823
112 1.46279112765768 221804 Complete commentary on the first twenty-two Psalms completecommenta01luth 1826
113 1.46004190818197 183981 Life and Works: A Collection of Pamphlets lifeandworksaco00soutgoog 1813
114 1.45958068336283 59616 The Knowledge and Practice of Christianity Made Easy to the Meanest Capacities knowledgeandpra00wilsgoog 1815
115 1.45840368965022 20278 Seven Sermons and a Prayer: Preached at the Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends, in … sevensermonsand00savegoog 1808
116 1.45742632990346 227911 Complete works of Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews; The wars of the Jews against Apion, etc., .. completeworksofj01jose 1800
117 1.45232962480849 65458 Dissertations on the prophecies of the Old Testament, by D. Levi : containing all such prophecies as are applicable to the coming of the Messiah, the restoration of the Jews, and the resurrection of the dead, whether so applied by Jews or Christians dissertationsonp02levy 1817
118 1.45211954516864 134648 Collections collectionss3v4mass 1792
119 1.45180960772939 233491 Whole genuine works wholegenuinework01joseuoft 1817
120 1.45027205356034 240983 The Christian entirely the property of Christ : in life and death; exhibited in fifty-three sermons on the Heidelbergh catechism … christianentirel02kemp 1810
121 1.44777835600615 202803 The Holy Bible : containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly called the Old and New Testament holybiblecontain02thom 1808
122 1.44633555885649 262332 Sermons, or homilies appointed to be read in churches in the time of Queen Elizabeth, of famous memory ; to which are added, the Articles of religion, the Constitutions and canons ecclesiastical, and indexes of subjects, scriptures, and names sermonsorhomilie00lond 1817
123 1.43736254374803 49364 Sermons, by Thomas Wetherald: Delivered at Friends’ Meetings in Baltimore and Washington, and at … sermonsbythomas00goulgoog 1826
124 1.43551055932632 54526 Memoirs of Francis Howgill, with extracts from his writings memoirsfrancish00backgoog 1828
125 1.43484581031614 100273 The Quaker, being a series of sermons by members of the Society of Friends .. quakerbeingserie02goul 1827
126 1.43451472547003 439291 A journal or historical account of the life, travels, sufferings, Christian experiences, and labour of love, in the work of the ministry, of that ancient, eminent, and faithful servant of Jesus Christ, George Fox journalorhistor00foxg 1800
127 1.43344862239321 61099 Sermons on various subjects sermonsonvarious00clow 1815
128 1.42745878042786 97030 A synopsis of the four evangelists : or, a regular history of the conception, birth, doctrine, miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, in the words of the evangelists synopsisoffourev00thom 1815
129 1.4231218053269 223434 The Holy Bible : containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly called the Old and New Testament holybiblecontain01thom 1808
130 1.42152980384191 161681 Plain and useful selections, from the books of the New Testament, by T. Browne plainandusefuls00unkngoog 1805
131 1.42138647498233 28191 A cry from the dead : consisting of the justly celebrated Mr James Guthrie’s last sermon, preached at Stirling, before his martyrdom at Edinburgh, in June, 1661, with his last speech on the scaffold, and ten considerations anent the decay of religion, from 1650 to 1660 cryfromdeadconsi00guth 1824
132 1.42128662511284 75627 Dying sayings of eminent Christians dyingsayingsofem00cobb 1828
133 1.41768238039994 198190 The works of the Right Reverend Father in God William Beveridge, D. D. Lord Bishop of St. Asaph containing all his sermons, as well those published by himself, as those since his death. With a preface, giving some account of the author and his writings; a table of the texts of scripture ocassionally explained; and an alphabetical index to the whole (Volume 3) 246993757.1580.emory.edu 1817
134 1.4174566564402 111173 A harmony of the gospels for historical study : an analytical synopsis of the four Gospels harmonyofgospels03stev 1803
135 1.41394886571603 293586 The familiar discourses of Dr. Martin Luther (the great reformer) familiardiscours00luth 1818
136 1.40791682340785 35758 Selections from the Diary and Other Writings of Mrs. Almira Torrey, Wife of Rev. Joseph Torrey … selectionsfromd00butlgoog 1823
137 1.40718058855187 25396 Universal Damnation and Salvation: Clearly Proved by the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament … universaldamnat00tylegoog 1805
138 1.40465129255464 129454 A history of the work of redemption historyofworkofr00edwa 1816
139 1.40453329225112 48234 Precept upon precept, or, a series of the earliest religious instruction the infant mind is capable of receiving preceptuponprece00mort 1800
140 1.40090711428772 56121 A Treatise on the Millennium: Shewing 1. What the Millennium Wil Be; 2. When … atreatiseonmill00davigoog 1827
141 1.40090397807159 97040 A synopsis of the four evangelists : or, A regular history of the conception, birth, doctrine, miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, in the words of the evangelists synopsisoffourev1815thom 1815
142 1.39786184424339 134257 Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society collectionsofmas34mass 1792
143 1.39634573239964 70893 An introduction to Christianity : designed to preserve young people from irreligion and vice introductiontoch00sutc 1814
144 1.39520523946004 44379 An Introductory key to the Greek language: consisting of an elementary Greek grammar … an interlineary translation of the Gospel of St. Luke, preceded by the original text in a separate form, and a key to parsing introductorykeyt00lond 1824
145 1.39489714174593 134260 Collections collections34mass 1792
146 1.3941731633803 21551 Sermons on the Mosaic Account of the Creation, the Serpent’s Temptation to … sermonsonmosaic00westgoog 1809
147 1.39415159447971 84148 Selections from the Works of Isaac Penington: To which are Added, Selections … selectionsfromw02penigoog 1818
148 1.39335867119525 40563 A spiritual and most preciouse perle [microform] : teachynge all men to loue & imbrace ye crosse as a most swete and necessarye thinge unto the soule.. spiritualmostpre00werd 1812
149 1.39046113461227 64274 The Indian Pilgrim; Or, The Progress of the Pilgrim Nazareenee, (formerly Called Goonah Purist … indianpilgrimor00goog 1825
150 1.38838439842696 199421 The works of the Right Reverend Father in God William Beveridge, D. D. Lord Bishop of St. Asaph containing all his sermons, as well those published by himself, as those since his death. With a preface, giving some account of the author and his writings; a table of the texts of scripture ocassionally explained; and an alphabetical index to the whole (Volume 2) 246993757.1579.emory.edu 1817
151 1.3807101901723 249364 The Christian entirely the property of Christ : in life and death; exhibited in fifty-three sermons on the Heidelbergh catechism … christianentirel01kemp 1810
152 1.37924019605347 133912 Bunyan’s grace abounding to the chief of sinners : heart’s ease in heart trouble, the world to come, or visions of heaven and hell, and the barren fig tree bunyansgraceab00buny 1827
153 1.37705958015999 61091 Sermons on various subjects sermonsonvariou00clow 1815
154 1.37681716793959 180857 The works of the Right Reverend Father in God William Beveridge, D. D. Lord Bishop of St. Asaph containing all his sermons, as well those published by himself, as those since his death. With a preface, giving some account of the author and his writings; a table of the texts of scripture ocassionally explained; and an alphabetical index to the whole (Volume 4) 246993757.1577.emory.edu 1817
155 1.37617732005999 58756 The life of Jesus Christ, incl. His apocryphal history, from the spurious gospels, &c. [compiled ... lifejesuschrist00chrigoog 1818
156 1.37462600929429 190710 True Christianity: or, The whole economy of God towards man, and the whole duty of man towards God: in four books truechristianity01arnd 1809
157 1.37249625899747 214717 The fathers of the English Church; or, A selection from the writings of the ... fathersenglishc01unkngoog 1807
158 1.37226740183595 74315 The infant's progress, from the valley of destruction to everlasting glory infantsprogress00shergoog 1823
159 1.37094136462581 17535 Letters and Observations Relating to the Controversy Respecting the ... lettersandobser00braigoog 1824
160 1.36932765858411 189671 The works of William Dell, minister of the gospel and master of Gonvil and Caius college, in Cambridge worksofwilliamde00dell 1816
161 1.36679147260919 115940 A religious convincement and plea for the baptism and communion of the Spirit : and that which is of material bread, wine and water rejected as Jewish rites, both unprofitable, and the cause of great division among Christians religiousconvinc00patc 1822
162 1.3634650608203 49647 A practical discourse upon the Epistle by Jude practicaldiscour00tomkiala 1823
163 1.36270403327276 235421 The Works of the Rev. John Wesley : in ten volumes worksofrevjohnwe05wesl 1826
164 1.3614379474573 231708 The Works of Flavius Josephus ...: To which are Added, Three Dissertations ... worksflaviusjos06whisgoog 1822
165 1.36143131112262 190210 The works of William Dell, minister of the gospel and master of Gonvil and Caius college, in Cambridge workswilliamdel00dellgoog 1816
166 1.3613092978158 74827 The Life and Acts of Saint Patrick: The Archbishop, Primate and Apostle of Ireland lifeandactssain00jocegoog 1809
167 1.35986704327757 218148 A journal or historical account of the life, travels, sufferings, Christian experiences, and labour of love, in the work of the ministry, of that ancient, eminent, and faithful servant of Jesus Christ, George Fox ajournalorhisto01foxgoog 1765
168 1.35701294331898 198890 A Selection from the Writings of the Reformers and Early Protestant Divines of the Church of ... aselectionfromw00richgoog 1817
169 1.35401899102432 121654 A History of the Origin and Progress of the Doctrine of Universal Salvation: Also the Final ... ahistoryorigina01browgoog 1826
170 1.3507656749073 155827 A history of the work of redemption. Containing the outlines of a body of divinity in a method entirely new workofredemp00edwauoft 1774
171 1.34642100780148 31696 A short and plain view of the outward, yet sacred rights and ordinances of the house of God shortplainviewof00mack 1810
172 1.34492306374394 40333 A treatise upon the life of faith treatiseuponlife00roma 1809
173 1.34352762961588 131819 Sermons preached on several occasions, in the island of Barbadoes sermonspreachedo00shre 1825
174 1.34082022646656 30080 Sacra Privata: The Private Meditations and Prayers of the Right Reverend ... sacraprivatapri01wilsgoog 1819
175 1.33854592009917 214622 The Koran : commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed korancommonlyc01sale 1812
176 1.33584969669123 20231 The story of Joseph and his brethren, set forth in a pleasing and instructive manner; and adapted to the capacities of children storyofjosephhis00shariala 1812
177 1.33344097036287 88059 The scholar's guide to the history of the Bible : or an abridgement of the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, with explanatory remarks : intended for the use of schools and families scholarsguidetoh00stro 1822
178 1.33333069658147 75783 Sion's travellers comforted and the disobedient warned : in a collection of books and epistles of that faithful minister of Christ Jesus sionstravellersc00mars 1704
179 1.32760012626396 189386 The works of the Right Reverend Father in God William Beveridge, D. D. Lord Bishop of St. Asaph containing all his sermons, as well those published by himself, as those since his death. With a preface, giving some account of the author and his writings; a table of the texts of scripture ocassionally explained; and an alphabetical index to the whole (Volume 1) 246993757.1578.emory.edu 1817
180 1.32749238237137 70545 The life and death of mr. Badman: Presented to the World in a Familiar Dialogue Between Mr ... lifeanddeathmrb01bunygoog 1808
181 1.32496384061585 214478 The Fathers of the English Church: Or, A Selection from the Writings of the ... fathersenglishc00covegoog 1809
182 1.3237321548224 207436 The works of the Right Reverend Father in God William Beveridge, D. D. Lord Bishop of St. Asaph containing all his sermons, as well those published by himself, as those since his death. With a preface, giving some account of the author and his writings; a table of the texts of scripture ocassionally explained; and an alphabetical index to the whole (Volume 5) 246993757.1575.emory.edu 1817
183 1.3232653539904 249448 The Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and book of Revelation : commonly called the New Testament : a new translation from a revised text of the Greek original gospelsactsepist00lond 1800
184 1.32194560563361 128862 Constancy in the truth commended : being a true account of the life, sufferings, and collected testimonies of that faithful elder, and ancient minister of Jesus Christ, Ambrose Rigge, who departed this life the 31st of the 11th month, 1704 constancyintruth00rigg 1710
185 1.32129600438108 151584 A Christian library (Volume 3): consisting of extracts from and abridgements of the choicest pieces of practical divinity which have been published in the English tongue 06969185.1325.emory.edu 1819
186 1.31673850799587 61032 The harmony of divine and heavenly doctrines : demonstrated in sundry declarations on variety of subjects preached at the Quakers meetings in London harmonyofdivineh00penn 1795
187 1.31440097483267 74639 The bank of faith and works united bankoffaithworks00ripl 1819
188 1.31438138020502 45465 The doctrine of the new Jerusalem concerning the Lord doctrineofnewjer00swed 1821
189 1.30688355738371 140435 Dissertations on the prophecies of the Old Testament : containing all such prophecies as are applicable to the coming of the Messiah, the restoration of the Jews, and the resurrection of the dead, whether so applied by Jews or Christians dissertationsonp00leviiala 1817
190 1.30660814951253 30696 Memoirs of Walter Pringle of Greenknow memoirsofwalterp00prin 1751
191 1.30550102258757 199445 The journal of Thomas Chalkley. To which is annexed, a collection of his works journalofthomasc00chal 1808
192 1.30500581043515 62485 The Christian's daily companion containing family and private devotions.. christiansdailyc00 1819
193 1.30324994585325 34058 A stream from the tree of life; or, The third record vindicated. Being the copies of several letters and epistles streamfromtreeof00muggiala 1758
194 1.30087230397414 217238 Whole genuine works wholegenuinework02joseuoft 1817
195 1.29561921842178 39608 For missionaries after the apostolical school : a series of orations formissionariesa00irvi 1825
196 1.29552230478668 74769 Dissertations on the prophecies of the Old Testament, by D. Levi : containing all such prophecies as are applicable to the coming of the Messiah, the restoration of the Jews, and the resurrection of the dead, whether so applied by Jews or Christians dissertationsonp01levy 1817
197 1.29392721402665 240669 The Christian entirely the property of Christ, in life and death: exhibited in fifty-three sermons on the Heidelbergh catechism .. christianentirelcl00kemp 1810
198 1.29388806225514 170174 Letters, and sketches of sermons : in three volumes letterssketcheso01murr 1812
199 1.2935849755877 63641 Isaiah, a new translation : with a preliminary dissertation, and notes critical, philological, and explanatory isaiahnewtransla01lowt 1795
200 1.29304095286978 24827 Strictures on the Doctrine of Universal Salvation: Wherein the Doctrine is Disproved on the ... stricturesondoc00crowgoog 1821
201 1.28739208557223 121702 A History of the Origin and Progress of the Doctrine of Universal Salvation: Also the Final ... ahistoryorigina00browgoog 1826
202 1.28617539753508 131723 A series of lecture sermons : delivered at the Second Universalist meeting, in Boston seriesoflectures00balliala 1818
203 1.2831585493209 67539 A treatise of the three evils of the last times: I. The sword, II. The pestilence, III. The famine; and of their natural and moral causes. As also of the ensuing coming of Antichrist, according to the notion of the ancient fathers treatiseofthreee00hild 1826
204 1.28245009079416 222839 The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly called the Old and New Testament holybiblecontai00thomgoog 1808
205 1.28175613962872 25370 Five sermons for the times : against puseyism on the one hand, and dissent on the other fivesermonsforti00sabi 1800
206 1.27657627631906 238526 The New Testament: in an improved version upon the basis of Archbishop Newcome's new translation, with a corrected text, and notes critical and explanatory newtestamentinim00newc 1809
207 1.27617753593089 17921 The missionary pioneer; or, A brief memoir of the life, labours, and death of John Stewart, (man of colour,) founder, under God, of the mission among the Wyandotts, at Upper Sandusky, Ohio missionarypionee01mitc 1827
208 1.27517193310976 225911 The Works of Flavius Josephus, the Learned and Authentic Jewish Historian and Celebrated Warrior ... worksflaviusjos00whisgoog 1826
209 1.27349767433983 68547 The Infant's Progress from the Valley of Destruction to Everlasting Glory infantsprogress01goog 1821
210 1.27313554507647 134943 The seven last plagues; or the vials of the wrath of God: a treatise on the prophecies, in two parts. Consisting of dissertations on various passages of scripture; sevenlastplagues00reid 1828
211 1.2726919742998 63675 Eleven discourses, delivered extempore, at several meeting-houses of the people called Quakers elevendiscourses00foth 1817
212 1.26932310580292 182318 Letters and sketches of sermons, in threee volumes letterssketcheso02murriala 1812
213 1.2665691828695 61146 Sermons on various subjects sermonsonvarious01clow 1815
214 1.26608907403929 55325 A view of the human heart viewofhumanheart00simo 1828
215 1.26557685766805 63400 Godly meditations upon the most holy sacrament of the Lord's supper godlymeditation00suttgoog 1630
216 1.26552133621522 228403 An abridgment of the Book of martyrs: to which are prefixed, the living testimonies of the church of God, and faithful martyrs, in different ages of the world; and the corrupt fruits of the false church, in the time of the apostacy. To this work is annexed, an account of the just judgments of God on persecutors, &c. Also, a Christian plea against persecution for the cause of conscience abridgmentofbook00susa 1810
217 1.2653272699175 228528 The works of John Owen worksofjohnowe16owen 1826
218 1.26456723272313 199576 The journal of Thomas Chalkley. To which is annexed, a collection of his works journalofthomasch00chal 1808
219 1.26211615656846 169673 Farewell sermons of some of the most eminent of the nonconformist ministers : delivered at the period of their ejectment by the act of uniformity in the year 1662 : to which is prefixed a historical and biographical preface cu31924029358789 1816
220 1.26163796576699 153302 The last days: a discourse on the evil character of these our times, proving them to be the "Perilous times" of the "Last days" lastdaysdiscours00irviuoft 1828
221 1.26022934354458 67249 An Account of the Life of that Ancient Servant of Jesus Christ, John ... anaccountlifeth02richgoog 1825
222 1.25838161929819 187001 Sermons, lectures, and occasional discourses sermonslectures00irvigoog 1828
223 1.25767008592273 37694 The Triumph of Faith: By the Late Rev. William Romaine triumphfaithbyl00romagoog 1809
224 1.25749538819433 87492 The Scholar's Guide, to the History of the Bible ...: Or an Abridgement of the Scriptures of the ... scholarsguideto00strogoog 1822
225 1.25612672211502 66560 Plain sermons, preached in a village church, by a country clergyman [C.G. Perceval]. plainsermonspre00percgoog 1828
226 1.25497294107616 230833 An abridgment of the Book of martyrs: to which are prefixed, the living testimonies of the church of God, and faithful martyrs, in different ages of the world; and the corrupt fruits of the false church, in the time of the apostacy. To this work is annexed, an account of the just judgments of God on persecutors, &c. Also, a Christian plea against persecution for the cause of conscience abridgmentofbook00newy 1810
227 1.25424380375706 20506 Extracts from letters.. extractsfromlett01jack 1825
228 1.25367083370087 78824 Sermons sermons00kinggoog 1827
229 1.25299179785797 149756 Private thoughts, in two parts complete. Part I. Upon religion, digested into twelve articles; with practical resolutions, formed thereupon. Part II. Upon a Christian life; or, Necessary directions for its beginning and progress upon earth, in order to its final perfection in the Beatific vision privatethoughtsi00beve 1817
230 1.25280461792952 195761 The Koran koran00sale 1825
231 1.24958296540526 105507 The holy war made by Shaddai upon Diabolus, for the regaining of the metropolis of the world; or, The losing and taking again of the town of Mansoul holywarmadebysha01buny 1817
232 1.24915790818423 228649 The works of John Owen worksofjohnow16owen 1826
233 1.24913501741435 101175 Barclay’s Apology for the true Christian divinity : as professed by the people called Quakers barclaysapologyf00barc 1822
234 1.24858711251557 208332 The Christian’s consolations against the fears of death [microform] : with seasonable directions how to prepare ourselves to die well MN41532ucmf_0 1826
235 1.24855147618169 204630 The Christian’s defence against the fears of death : with seasonable directions how to prepare ourselves to die well christiansdefenc00drel 1808
236 1.24733558415946 188898 The Holy Bible : containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly called the Old and New Testament holybiblecontain04thom 1808
237 1.24713021722642 42367 The doctrine of the two covenants, wherein the nature of original sin is explained and St. Paul and St. James reconciled in the great article of justification doctrineoftwocov00hopkuoft 1799
238 1.24639249923982 18493 The important examination of the Holy Scriptures importantexamina00volt 1819
239 1.24626922508904 55252 A series of allegorical designs, representing the human heart from its natural to its regenerated st seriesofallegori01simo 1828
240 1.24265477806117 182332 Letters, and sketches of sermons : in three volumes letterssketcheso02murr 1812
241 1.24088731197575 36496 Divine communications; divinecommunicat00osbo 1822
242 1.24080123257396 71032 An introduction to Christianity: designed to preserve young people from irreligion and vice introductiontoch01sutc 1817
243 1.24044623765605 108126 A true relation of the holy war, made by King Shaddai upon Diabolus, for the regaining of the metropolis of the world: or, The losing and taking again of the town of Mansoul truerelationofh00buny 1806
244 1.2392138289982 271780 Joshua Redivivus : or, three hundred and fifty-two religious letters, written between 1636 & 1661 joshuaredivivuso00ruth 1826
245 1.23920828174493 33387 A Short and Plain Introduction to the Better Understanding of the Lord’s … ashortandplaini00churgoog 1822
246 1.23759986543986 48110 The epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp. A new tr. by W.K. Clementson epistlesignatiu00polygoog 1827
247 1.23692312093223 38804 A Glass from the book : historical fact and ocular demonstration : showing the mysteries of Emanuel Swedenborg glassfrombookhis00phil 1817
248 1.2368058652193 30433 Sacra Privata: The Private Meditations and Prayers of the Right Rev. Thomas … sacraprivatapri04wilsgoog 1808
249 1.23183781919164 30700 An essay on the doctrine and order of the Evangelical church of America as constituted at Baltimore in 1734 essayondoctrineo00phoe 1817
250 1.23124563574936 17710 Letters and extracts of letters of the late James Brandwood .. lettersextractso00bran 1828

Data Table of all 4 Word Matches between “The late war between…” (1816) and “The Book of Mormon” (1830), not occurring in the Bible

Rare 4 Word Phrases

4 Word Phrases Matching Book of Mormon (1830) Significance
a-ruler-over-this Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
about-to-destroy-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
about-twenty-and-four Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
across-the-great-waters Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
after-the-servants-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
again-to-battle-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
against-them-and-slew Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
all-our-might-against Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-a-blood-thirsty Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-a-part-thereof Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-a-ruler-over Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-behold-he-saw Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-gave-unto-him Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-slew-seven-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-the-wilderness-round Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-the-wisdom-thereof Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-the-words-thereof Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-their-weapons-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-they-returned-every Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-they-were-naked Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-wist-not-what Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-ye-shall-never Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
another-and-wist-not Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
assemble-themselves-together-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
away-there-came-a Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
battle-against-the-king Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
be-destroyed-even-as Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
be-known-unto-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
beyond-measure-and-it Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
cast-away-and-they Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
chief-captains-of-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
chief-city-and-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
compelled-to-flee-from Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
concerning-the-matter-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
concerning-the-matter-but Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
country-and-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
crossed-the-waters-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
day-and-there-were Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
departed-from-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
destroy-the-people-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
earth-now-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
enemies-and-it-shall Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
forth-to-battle-against Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
go-against-the-city Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
go-forth-against-them Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
governor-of-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
granted-unto-him-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
had-gathered-themselves-together Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
he-hearkened-unto-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
he-spake-unto-his Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
his-men-for-they Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
if-this-thing-which Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
in-abundance-and-we Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
in-their-might-to Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
it-was-like-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
judge-the-people-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
king-his-father-for Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
king-in-the-which Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
king-now-it-was Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
laid-wait-for-them Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
land-now-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
lasted-for-the-space Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
like-unto-the-voice Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
lord-fell-upon-them Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
man-and-his-name Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
man-and-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
may-be-likened-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
me-ye-would-not Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
nevertheless-it-came-to Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
nevertheless-the-army-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
nevertheless-the-people-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
nevertheless-they-knew-not Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
not-now-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
now-the-armies-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
now-the-army-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
now-the-land-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
now-the-loss-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
now-when-the-people Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-destruction-which-they Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-god-which-saith Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-began Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-fled Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-three Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
out-with-his-army Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
over-this-people-now Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-in-the-second Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-that-one-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-that-the-army Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-that-the-hearts Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-that-there-was Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
pass-that-they-gathered Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
people-to-rise-up Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
ruler-over-this-people Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
saw-the-men-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
saw-the-wickedness-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
saying-if-ye-will Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
seventh-month-which-is Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
shall-we-suffer-these Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
shall-ye-receive-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
silver-and-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
slain-for-the-lord Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
slay-him-for-he Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
so-shall-ye-fall Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
spoken-unto-them-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
that-they-gathered-together Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-beauty-thereof-was Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-earth-now-it Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-king-fled-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-king-now-it Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-king-therefore-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-thirty-and-sixth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-twenty-and-ninth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-twenty-and-third Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-wilderness-round-about Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
their-armies-into-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
their-chiefs-and-their Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
their-cries-and-their Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
their-strong-holds-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
them-and-they-pitched Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
them-but-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
themselves-in-their-might Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
themselves-together-in-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
then-shall-ye-receive Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
there-were-many-slain Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
thereof-was-like-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
these-things-and-more Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
these-words-his-heart Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-humbled-themselves-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-rushed-forth-with Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-took-their-weapons Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-were-astonished-beyond Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-were-exceedingly-rejoiced Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-were-like-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
thirty-and-sixth-year Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
throughout-the-land-for Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-come-out-against Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-flee-before-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-flee-from-before Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-pass-that-jacob Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-pass-that-one Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
took-their-weapons-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
unto-the-counsel-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
was-not-known-among Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
was-the-chief-captain Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
was-their-chief-captain Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
was-troubled-in-his Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
weapons-of-war-to Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
weapons-of-war-were Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
weapons-of-war-yea Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
were-upon-the-waters Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
which-he-gave-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
wickedness-which-had-been Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
will-give-unto-you Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
will-hearken-unto-him Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
with-his-army-against Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
women-and-your-children Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
year-on-the-tenth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
year-that-the-people Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
your-women-and-your Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.

Less Rare Phrases (1 – 20 times per 1000 books)

4 Word Phrases Matching Book of Mormon (1830) Significance
of-the-king-had 0.0105263157895 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-were 0.0105263157895 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
four-years-from-the 0.0106382978723 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
space-of-an-hour 0.010752688172 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-bread-and-the 0.010989010989 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-night-time-and 0.010989010989 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-work-of-death 0.0123456790123 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-after-it-had 0.0128205128205 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-his-own-home 0.0131578947368 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-repent-of-their 0.0131578947368 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-the-whole-army 0.013698630137 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-the-hearts-of 0.0138888888889 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
had-fallen-to-the 0.0140845070423 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-waters-edge-and 0.0140845070423 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
prepared-to-meet-the 0.0144927536232 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-king-which-was 0.0144927536232 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-with-their-own 0.0144927536232 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
east-to-the-west 0.0147058823529 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
language-of-the-people 0.0147058823529 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
space-of-seven-years 0.0147058823529 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
upon-the-shores-of 0.0149253731343 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
against-the-city-of 0.0151515151515 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
let-down-into-the 0.0151515151515 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-same-year-that 0.0151515151515 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-it-was-carried 0.0153846153846 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
led-on-by-the 0.015625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
there-was-a-law 0.015625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-all-our-might 0.015873015873 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-his-army-in 0.0161290322581 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-cunning-of-the 0.016393442623 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-arrived-in-the 0.0166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
it-had-come-to 0.0169491525424 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
when-they-were-about 0.0169491525424 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
one-half-of-our 0.0172413793103 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-more-numerous-than 0.0172413793103 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-the-names-of 0.0172413793103 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
even-down-to-the 0.0175438596491 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-coming-of-a 0.0175438596491 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-stood-in-need 0.0175438596491 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
been-instructed-in-the 0.0178571428571 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
but-the-names-of 0.0178571428571 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-south-on-the 0.0178571428571 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-go-forth-and 0.0178571428571 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
should-do-unto-you 0.0181818181818 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-city-they-were 0.0185185185185 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-welfare-of-my 0.0185185185185 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-was-beloved-by 0.0188679245283 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-claims-as-author 0.0196078431373 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-hearts-and-the 0.02 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
was-the-pride-of 0.02 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
upon-them-they-were 0.0204081632653 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
contained-in-this-work 0.0217391304348 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-rule-over-them 0.0217391304348 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
him-by-the-people 0.0222222222222 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-he-should-suffer 0.0227272727273 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-drove-them-back 0.0232558139535 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
number-of-his-men 0.0232558139535 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
hair-of-their-heads 0.025 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
enemies-of-the-king 0.025641025641 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-king-and-as 0.025641025641 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-hearts-and-they 0.025641025641 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-for-it-was 0.0263157894737 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-king-began-to 0.027027027027 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-partook-of-the 0.0277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
i-have-the-power 0.0277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
into-the-waters-of 0.0277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-death-but-the 0.0277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
fourteenth-year-of-the 0.0285714285714 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
it-shall-be-free 0.0294117647059 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
was-in-the-morning 0.0294117647059 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
was-the-joy-of 0.0294117647059 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-his-men-and 0.0294117647059 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
returned-to-their-camp 0.030303030303 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
south-of-the-city 0.030303030303 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-land-of-liberty 0.030303030303 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-wickedness-of-his 0.030303030303 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-man-and-it 0.03125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-a-valley-and 0.0322580645161 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-the-whole-face 0.0344827586207 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-blood-of-thousands 0.0344827586207 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-the-armies-of 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
did-the-people-of 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-those-that-were 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-found-it-was 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-go-against-the 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-surrounded-by-the 0.037037037037 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
even-as-it-were 0.0384615384615 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-benefit-of-man 0.0384615384615 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-peace-makers-for 0.0384615384615 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
which-the-sons-of 0.0384615384615 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
appointed-by-the-people 0.04 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
bow-down-before-the 0.0416666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-and-drove-them 0.0416666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-right-nor 0.0416666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-now-when-he 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
into-their-houses-and 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-now 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-thunder-and-the 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
one-another-with-their 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
peace-makers-for-they 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-shedding-of 0.0434782608696 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-any-parts-of 0.0454545454545 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
work-of-destruction-and 0.0454545454545 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
a-stop-put-to 0.047619047619 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
began-to-open-the 0.047619047619 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-about-the-space 0.047619047619 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-thought-of-the 0.047619047619 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
make-their-escape-and 0.0526315789474 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
same-year-that-the 0.0526315789474 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-south-and-from 0.0526315789474 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-the-men-of 0.0526315789474 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-the-armies-of 0.0555555555556 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
throughout-the-land-and 0.0555555555556 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
walk-in-the-path 0.0555555555556 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
welfare-of-my-country 0.0555555555556 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-they-refused-to 0.0588235294118 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-chief-governor-of 0.0588235294118 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-matter-and-it 0.0588235294118 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
man-and-he-had 0.0625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
prepared-to-meet-them 0.0625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
slain-in-battle-and 0.0625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
makers-for-they-shall 0.0666666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
south-and-from-the 0.0666666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-get-upon-the 0.0666666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-coming-upon-them 0.0666666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-their-own-brethren 0.0714285714286 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
preservation-of-the-lives 0.0714285714286 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-hearts-for-they 0.0714285714286 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
there-was-no-mercy 0.0714285714286 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-disappointed-in-their 0.0714285714286 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-their-hearts-were 0.0769230769231 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
gone-to-the-land 0.0769230769231 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
if-the-lord-hath 0.0769230769231 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
right-nor-to-the 0.0769230769231 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
upon-them-and-had 0.0769230769231 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
children-of-men-by 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-the-war-which 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-battle-and-the 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-right-nor-to 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-at-the-feet 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-began-to-prepare 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
things-which-they-could 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-prepared-for-them 0.0833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
against-the-men-of 0.0909090909091 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
chief-governor-of-the 0.0909090909091 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
when-they-had-come 0.0909090909091 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
again-that-they-might 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-worship-him-and 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
blood-of-man-and 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
came-down-upon-them 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-the-earth-was 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
recovered-of-his-wounds 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-earth-to-receive 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-fair-daughters-of 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-might-be-destroyed 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-repented-of-their 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
voice-of-thunder-and 0.1 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
a-great-city-which 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
after-the-people-of 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-about-the-space 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
inasmuch-as-there-were 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-his-own-camp 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
upon-them-from-their 0.111111111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-was-spoken-of 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
him-even-as-a 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-abundance-and-it 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-his-own-tent 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-world-behold 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
round-about-by-the 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
shall-come-when-the 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-people-for-there 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
waters-edge-and-the 0.125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-began-to-put 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
caught-in-a-snare 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
favor-in-the-sight 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-their-husbands-and 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
his-own-tent-and 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
intent-to-destroy-the 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
neither-would-they-believe 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-curious-workmanship-and 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-they-went-in 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-red-sea-now 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-and-they-became 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-go-against-them 0.142857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
an-hundred-and-two 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
not-known-among-the 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-old-and-they 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
should-be-handed-down 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-earth-now-the 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-armies-and-their 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-swords-and-their 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-and-the-light 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-prisoners-of-war 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
there-were-many-thousands 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-earth-now 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
until-they-were-all 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
was-about-three-thousand 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
weapons-of-war-in 0.166666666667 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
against-their-brethren-and 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-all-the-weapons 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-many-officers-and 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
arrived-in-the-land 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
had-fallen-from-heaven 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-had-fallen-to 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
number-of-the-vessels 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-liberty-and-were 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-war-to-defend 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-chief-city-and 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-howlings-of-the 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-king-and-she 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
their-voices-to-the 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-came-forth-and 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-were-overcome-and 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-prepared-to-meet 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-slain-and-their 0.2 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.

Insignificant Matches (occurring over 20 times per 1000 books)

4 Word Phrases Matching Book of Mormon (1830) Significance
for-the-purpose-of 0.0000462235370251 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-commencement-of-the 0.000177179305457 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-benefit-of-the 0.000214224507284 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
an-act-for-the 0.000277161862528 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
at-the-close-of 0.000282326369283 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
act-entitled-an-act 0.000298507462687 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-united-states-of 0.000316756414317 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
united-states-of-america 0.000399361022364 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
as-well-as-a 0.000434216239687 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
an-act-entitled-an 0.000438788942519 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-possession-of-the 0.000468384074941 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
entitled-an-act-for 0.000610128126907 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-a-number-of 0.000623441396509 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-field-of-battle 0.000641025641026 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
a-branch-of-the 0.000707213578501 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-object-of-his 0.000746825989544 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-preservation-of-the 0.000805152979066 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-the-encouragement-of 0.000816993464052 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-which-they-were 0.000840336134454 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
by-the-people-of 0.000861326442722 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-morning-of 0.000867302688638 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-shores-of-the 0.000895255147717 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-independence-of-the 0.000968054211036 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-conformity-to-the 0.000994035785288 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
part-of-the-year 0.0010162601626 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
be-placed-in-the 0.00102145045965 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-an-act-entitled 0.00103305785124 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-lives-of-the 0.00104712041885 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-defence-of 0.00104931794334 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
for-the-safety-of 0.00110619469027 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-the-loss-of 0.00112612612613 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-act-of 0.00114810562572 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-had-been-a 0.00115074798619 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-be-placed-in 0.00115473441109 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
a-part-of-their 0.00117647058824 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-movements-of-the 0.0012077294686 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
laws-of-the-land 0.00131926121372 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-commencement-of-this 0.00152207001522 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-return-to-his 0.0016835016835 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-night-time 0.00170068027211 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-men-in-the 0.00173611111111 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-commencement-of 0.0017793594306 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
at-the-city-of 0.00178571428571 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-independence-of 0.0019267822736 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-course-of-their 0.0020325203252 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-darkness-of-the 0.00210526315789 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-defence-of-their 0.00211416490486 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-words-following 0.0021645021645 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
it-had-been-in 0.00222222222222 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-lives-of 0.00240384615385 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-the-loss-of 0.00244498777506 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-two-nations 0.00247524752475 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
independence-of-the-united 0.00251256281407 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
have-the-power-to 0.00251889168766 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-north-and 0.00253164556962 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-defence-of-their 0.0025706940874 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
they-were-about-to 0.00258397932817 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-arts-of 0.00258397932817 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-search-of-the 0.0026525198939 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
it-were-in-the 0.00267379679144 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-authors-and 0.00268817204301 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
act-for-the-encouragement 0.00277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-encouragement-of-learning 0.00277777777778 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-world-that-the 0.00281690140845 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-books-to-the 0.002849002849 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-maps-charts-and 0.002849002849 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
about-two-hundred-and 0.00285714285714 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-copies-of-maps 0.00292397660819 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
charts-and-books-to 0.00294117647059 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
stood-in-need-of 0.00296735905045 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
but-it-was-in 0.00299401197605 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
copies-of-maps-charts 0.003003003003 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
books-to-the-authors 0.00301204819277 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
securing-the-copies-of 0.00303951367781 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-cause-of-liberty 0.00308641975309 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
by-securing-the-copies 0.0030959752322 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
encouragement-of-learning-by 0.0030959752322 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
maps-charts-and-books 0.0030959752322 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
copies-during-the-times 0.00310559006211 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
such-copies-during-the 0.00310559006211 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-authors-and-proprietors 0.00311526479751 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
authors-and-proprietors-of 0.003125 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-such-copies-during 0.00313479623824 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-learning-by-securing 0.00314465408805 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
learning-by-securing-the 0.0031746031746 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
an-act-supplementary-to 0.00319488817891 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-proprietors-of-such 0.00320512820513 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
during-the-times-therein 0.00320512820513 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
proprietors-of-such-copies 0.00320512820513 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
be-it-remembered-that 0.00324675324675 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-times-therein-mentioned 0.00333333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
we-may-not-be 0.00334448160535 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-those-who-were 0.00338983050847 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
name-of-the-king 0.00340136054422 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
supplementary-to-an-act 0.00346020761246 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
those-who-were-not 0.00347222222222 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
times-therein-mentioned-and 0.00347222222222 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
darkness-of-the-night 0.00361010830325 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
among-the-nations-of 0.003663003663 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
came-up-to-the 0.00383141762452 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
one-of-the-strongest 0.00389105058366 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-the-west-and 0.00396825396825 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-governor-of-this 0.004 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
act-supplementary-to-an 0.00414937759336 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
also-one-of-the 0.0042194092827 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-same-shall-have 0.00446428571429 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-means-of-their 0.00452488687783 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-point-of-his 0.00452488687783 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
more-numerous-than-the 0.0048309178744 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-people-had 0.005 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
entitled-an-act-supplementary 0.00502512562814 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-had-been-taken 0.00505050505051 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
it-remembered-that-on 0.00512820512821 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
upon-the-borders-of 0.00520833333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-exposed-to-the 0.00523560209424 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-king-which 0.00529100529101 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
year-of-the-independence 0.00534759358289 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
conformity-to-the-act 0.00537634408602 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-this-office-the 0.0054347826087 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-the-pleasure-of 0.0054347826087 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
with-his-whole-army 0.00546448087432 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
fell-into-their-hands 0.00549450549451 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-words-following-to 0.00558659217877 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
words-following-to-wit 0.00561797752809 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
office-the-title-of 0.00564971751412 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
remembered-that-on-the 0.00564971751412 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
that-they-and-their 0.00574712643678 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-their-own-nation 0.00588235294118 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-came-to-a 0.0059880239521 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
mentioned-and-extending-the 0.0059880239521 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
therein-mentioned-and-also 0.00609756097561 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
therein-mentioned-and-extending 0.00609756097561 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
names-of-those-who 0.00621118012422 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
thereof-to-the-arts 0.00625 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
this-office-the-title 0.00632911392405 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
historical-and-other-prints 0.00645161290323 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
were-about-to-be 0.00649350649351 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-extending-the-benefits 0.00662251655629 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
deposited-in-this-office 0.00662251655629 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-arts-of-designing 0.00662251655629 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-benefits-thereof-to 0.00662251655629 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
to-cross-the-river 0.00662251655629 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
etching-historical-and-other 0.00680272108844 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-day-they 0.00680272108844 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
benefits-thereof-to-the 0.00684931506849 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
extending-the-benefits-thereof 0.00694444444444 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-etching-historical-and 0.00699300699301 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
take-the-advantage-of 0.00704225352113 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
by-the-people-to 0.00719424460432 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-that-they-shall 0.00746268656716 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-blood-of-our 0.00746268656716 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
number-of-men-to 0.00763358778626 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-space-of-seven 0.00763358778626 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-three-hundred-and 0.0077519379845 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-designing-engraving-and 0.00787401574803 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
arts-of-designing-engraving 0.00793650793651 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
engraving-and-etching-historical 0.00793650793651 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-space-of-an 0.00793650793651 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-were-ready-to 0.00806451612903 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
them-to-go-to 0.00806451612903 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
he-is-compelled-to 0.00813008130081 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
designing-engraving-and-etching 0.00833333333333 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-which-shall-be 0.00840336134454 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-their-minds-and 0.00840336134454 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
about-four-hundred-and 0.00869565217391 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
of-the-hearts-of 0.00884955752212 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-number-of-prisoners 0.00884955752212 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
head-of-the-river 0.00892857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
the-work-of-destruction 0.00892857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
whereof-he-claims-as 0.00892857142857 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
in-a-place-called 0.00909090909091 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
suffered-themselves-to-be 0.00909090909091 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
was-the-spirit-of 0.00925925925926 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
and-in-the-west 0.00943396226415 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
right-whereof-he-claims 0.00943396226415 of 0.25. Not in the Bible.
Total Score 56.2591500194
Wordcount (bom-1830) 271240
Wordcount (latewarbetween_00hunt) 55378

First Book of Napoleon (Added: 11/1/2013)

Data Table of rare 4 Word Matches between “The First Book of Napoleon” (1809) and “The Book of Mormon” (1830), not occurring in the Bible

Rare 4 Word Phrases

4 Word Phrases Matching Book of Mormon (1830) Significance
and-living-god-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
again-it-came-to Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
again-opened-his-mouth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-behold-the-chief Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
and-slew-all-those Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
appointed-to-reign-in Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
be-delivered-unto-you Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
because-of-the-goodness Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
been-delivered-into-my Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
before-the-wind-they Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
behold-all-the-nations Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
behold-it-came-to Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
being-a-mighty-man Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
captain-over-the-armies Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
centre-of-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
commandments-and-to-walk Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
cried-with-a-mighty Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
deafness-of-their-ears Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
deeds-are-evil-but Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
earth-and-they-were Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
for-the-wickedness-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
fought-in-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
freedom-of-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
god-that-hath-delivered Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
guilty-of-all-manner Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
harden-your-hearts-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
hath-said-that-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
he-was-exceeding-wroth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
him-beware-lest-he Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
humbly-before-the-lord Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
image-of-man-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
in-their-ears-until Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
into-captivity-and-he Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
king-and-they-also Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
let-him-beware-lest Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
liberty-wherewith-god-hath Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
lord-had-given-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
lord-shall-be-kindled Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
manner-of-iniquity-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
many-generations-and-ye Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
may-be-likened-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
might-carry-into-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
mine-eyes-towards-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
o-ye-people-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-men-and-lo Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-the-land-behold Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-the-land-save Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
of-their-enemies-now Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
plains-of-the-earth Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
reign-in-the-land Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
ruler-over-this-people Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
say-that-thou-hast Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
sea-which-divideth-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
sins-and-iniquities-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
soul-and-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
storm-and-the-tempest Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-deafness-of-their Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-earth-and-great Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-foolish-imaginations-of Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-king-therefore-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-land-with-his Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-people-may-do Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
the-sins-and-iniquities Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
their-ways-and-brought Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
them-now-it-came Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
them-of-their-wickedness Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
they-became-like-unto Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
throne-in-the-midst Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
to-rule-over-you Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
unto-them-the-power Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
unto-you-shall-be Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
walk-humbly-before-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
were-assembled-together-they Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
were-like-unto-the Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
wherewith-god-hath-made Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
which-are-temporal-and Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
with-a-mighty-voice Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
with-another-and-were Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
your-lands-shall-be Rarity: Less than 1 time per 1000 books. Not in the Bible.
Total Score 25.972623334
Wordcount (bom-1830) 271240
Wordcount (firstbooknapole00gruagoog) 22076

104 thoughts on “Hidden in Plain Sight

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  2. I found this analysis interesting, and salute your effort. I also want to thank you for acknowledging the weaknesses in your analysis. Most people don’t put that out there. I look forward to seeing your algorithm and more clarity on your methods.

    My questions/comments regarding the research are as follows:

    1. You aptly point out that the results could be explained by a common influence. You also state that you excluded the bible and biblical text. How do you plan to address the seemingly obvious point that the bible is the common influencer for both books? This should have also become a concern when the Koran started popping up on your top ten UMS.

    2. Why did you not reverse the analysis and compare The Late War to the 130,000 book population to see if the UMS Score for the BoM relative to The Late War was also high relative to the 130,000? For example, The Late War may have a particular style or content that causes a high UMS score with many books and not just the BoM.

    • Thanks, you are right and I have been thinking about the same things recently, so I just added these points to the “Weaknesses of this study” section, as I think they are important:


      8. It is possible that the removal of the KJV and DR Bibles also decreased our ability to trace significant source texts that rely on unique combinations of biblical material.

      9. Additionally we may be underestimating the possibility of randomly mutated or culturally influenced KJV/DR material co-occurring independently of one another, which may lead to the detection of textual transmissions that appear significant, but are actually false positives. We are already working on much more accurate tools that do not require the removal of the KJV or DR, and can better detect independent influence via source separation rather than relying on similarity between texts. These results will be available in a future publication.

      To answer your last question (#2): We did this in subsequent experiments, and this is partly how we found out that The Book of Mormon (1830), The Book of Nullification (1830) and to a lesser extent the Chronicles of Eri (1822) were derivatives of Hunt’s The late war (1816).

  3. This is interesting work although I admittedly come at it from a very different point of view than you. I would like to think a bit more about your results and their meaning. But to do so, I have a few questions and comments:

    1. Under bullet 4 of the section “To get a score for each book:” you say that you “Sum all inverse baseline frequencies to get a score”. Do you mean that you sum all inverse baseline frequencies for the COMMON 4-grams for the two books in question to get a score?

    2. Under bullet 5 of the same section, do you divide the score by the sum of the total words for the book in question and the Book of Mormon, or just by the word count for the book in question?

    3. How does your work relate to Duane’s graph in which he appears to use “slope” = (words in book in question) / (sum all inverse baseline frequencies for the common 4-grams) as the similarity index? Is Duane’s score just the inverse of the score described in the text?

    4. Have you considered other weighting systems? Weights are clearly needed, but why are yours compelling? Your weights decrease hyperbolically with increasing baseline frequency of a 4-gram. Information theory suggests a different set of weights that do not decrease as steeply with increasing frequency. Also, note that your weights depend on the size and nature of your corpus. Is this sensible?

    5. Have you considered other ways of adjusting the index for book sizes? What effect does simply dividing by the total words in the 2 books (or just of the book in question) have? Relatedly, why do you not use the frequencies of the common 4-grams in your score calculation in any way?

    6. You similarity score seems to be a special case of the generalized Gower (1971 – Biometrics) similarity index except that you don’t standardize by dividing your scores by the sum of the weights. If you had done this, the similarity index would be between 0 and 1 (a more natural range for a similarity index.)

    7. Is the Pride and Prejudice — Officer’s Daughter comparison the only comparison you use to calibrate your similarity results? I think this section requires a great deal of strengthening. One problem is that you would seem to be able to compare scores for books compared to the Book of Mormon, but why would comparisons of 2 books (neither of which is the Book of Mormon) be useful? Even if the Book of Mormon word count is not directly used in the score, the Book of Mormon word count indirectly influences all comparisons to the Book of Mormon. Clearly it does not influence other comparisons.

    8. I think you are making a big leap by talking about the score as a measure of “influence.” It measures some kind of similarity, but it would take a lot more evidence to draw conclusions about “influence.”

    Looking forward to your replies.

    • 1. Yes, I will correct that. It is the sum of all inverse frequences of 4-grams common to pairs of books (in this case The Book of Mormon and each other book).

      2. Currently, we divide only by the book in question. The “Unified Match Score” is (score/wordcount_book1) * (score*wordcount_book2); however, we’ve recently been discussing better options. In future, we may be using “score/(wordcount_book1 * wordcount_book2)” or “score/(wordcount_book1 + wordcount_book2)” as the “Unified Match Score” (perhaps under a new name so as not to confuse). The Unified Match Score is meant to be a score that can be compared against other match scores for any pair of books.

      3. “Score” in both cases refers to the same thing–the “sum of all inverse baseline frequences for the common 4-grams”, as you said. We think of it as a raw score that can’t easily be compared because it is still dependent on book size. When we say “Score / WC” in the table, we mean “Score divided by wordcount” which is the same slope you see in the graph. CORRECTION: I see what you mean now, yes, the graph is the inverse, i.e. (wordcount / score).

      4. Our initial study (unpublished) actually used Google’s public ngram data (http://storage.googleapis.com/books/ngrams/books/datasetsv2.html). For our purposes, there were several deficiences in this data set, however. The most obvious was that we could find rare 4-grams, but could not easily tell which texts those 4-grams appeared in. So when we decided to download all of the books we could and do an n-gram analysis ourselves, we simply wanted to make sure that we were zeroing in on “rare” matches. Our weights may be decreasing too sharply, but we wanted to err more on the side of discounting common phrases. If there is a better weighting, we’d be very interested in it.

      Yes, we are aware that our weights depend on the size of our corpus (and nature) but we decided that at least for now, as long as we keep the baseline consistent internally when doing comparisons, we can still compare apples to apples. As for the nature of the corpus, we’ve looked at quite a few books/articles/texts downloaded from Archive.org and since we couldn’t necessarily decide on a “proper” way to partition it, we are relying on random chance as a way of trying to mitigate sampling bias in our baseline. As to the first point about weights, I’d be interested in how you would decouple the baseline weights from the size of the sample (divide by total wordcount of sample?)

      5. Yes, we’ve considered some ways, but we are still discussing the best way to achieve this “Uniform Match Score”. I’ll get back to you on this first point. Division by sum of wordcounts or division by product of wordcounts seem like possible choices.

      As to your second question, we tried using the frequencies of the common 4-grams, but it seemed to weight things too strongly in favor of highly repetitive phrases. For example, “it came to pass” is disproportionately common in the Book of Mormon relative to the baseline, and gets over-represented when we use its frequency.

      6. Thanks! We should do that.

      7. I’m going to leave this one for Chris.

      8. Agreed. We both really appreciate your generous criticism on this point–I hope our desire to be transparent and share early does not make any of your time feel devalued.

      We’re doing 2 studies here, and the first is a ranking algorithm which shows similarity. The second is one that we believe shows influence, but Chris is only just now getting to the part where he can publish those results.

      • 7. For Pride and Prejudice, it was not a calibration step, but rather a test to show context. I wanted to answer this question for myself: “Is the Book of Mormon distantly connected to our culture, or does it fit into a normal 1830′s culture?” After a few tests it was clear that the Book of Mormon was a product of its culture, and could not have been made before 1822 since it relied on too many phrases found only in an 1822 Koran. It also could not have been written prior to 1816 since it relies on Hunt’s The late war. Also the Chronicles of Eri was more distant than the Book of Mormon to its most common ancestor, while The Book of Nullification was more connected to its ancestors than the Book of Mormon. I also tried tracing Solomon Spalding’s Manuscript Found, and The First Book of Napoleon, but couldn’t find a close source of textual transmission, meaning they were more out of place, and less explainable than the Book of Mormon. I do believe that in the future we will be able to trace texts better with 1) The new ISS algorithm described in the updates from today and 2) Higher quantity and quality of text (ie. 1,000,000 books with near perfect scans)… but I suppose I will have to wait for technology to keep up with my ambitions.

  4. I love big data analysis, thanks for this. One way to make the study more meaningful might be to do the analysis with ancient books first translated in the 1800s such as the Epic of Gilgamesh to see if your methodology says they were influenced by books in the database.

    This analysis is only evidence against the BoM if translated ancient texts don’t have a number of books with good matches via your methodology (which I think is the default assumption). If you you looked at EoG and similar books and they didn’t have any close matches, it would make your case much stronger. And if EoG did have matches similar to the BoM results we’d want to know.

    Thanks again for sharing your results.

    • Thanks for the comment, I agree.

      The more books that we try tracing with this tool, the more we will know about its accuracy, which can help improve its usefulness for future researchers.

      So far Solomon Spalding’s Manuscript Found and The First Book of Napoleon are the most difficult books we’ve tried tracing, and I think it’s because of point 4 (in “Weaknesses of this Study”) since most other books we’ve tested seem quite easy to trace. I will see if we can test EoG for you … do you have any other books that are translated from distant cultures before the 1840′s era? I’d like to test all the books that I can.

      • After looking around a bit it looks like it might be best to find a subject matter expert and ask them about it. I’ve been googling around and it’s hard to find book-length translations of previously undiscovered texts from the 1800s. For example, from what I can tell, it looks like George Smith’s 1872 translation of Gilgamesh only has a couple hundred lines:

        http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/chad/chad.htm

        I’m not sure if that’s long enough for your methodology to be meaningful. There does appear to be a whole field called Papyrology dedicated to the study of ancient literature found and translated in modern times. There might be a professor willing to recommend some texts that would be good to plug into your model: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papyrology

        Here’s a list of what I was able to find:
        • Samia or The Girl from Samos was found in 1907/1952.
        • Dyskolos written in 300BC published in 1957
        • Oxford has a list of books here http://www.papyrology.ox.ac.uk/Fragments/lost_author.html
        • The Athenian Constitution: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/26095

        Also, maybe an alternative would be to take old Chinese literature (or other culture) and see if the first translations of those works appear to be influenced by modern English books in your database. These might not be the best choice but a couple I could find:

        Gems of Chinese Literature (1922):
        https://archive.org/details/gemsofchineselit00gile

        James Legge has several translations of books that he did in the mid-1800s:
        http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22Legge%2C%20James%2C%201815-1897%22

        Depending on how hard it is to run books, it might even be interesting to see how much direct influence your methodology finds with books such as The Republic. We know it was influential so I’d think you’d find books in your database that it links to. But if a 19th century translation of The Republic didn’t turn up significant 4gram matches, it would say a lot about books that did.

        http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/subject/27?sort_order=downloads

        • Thanks, those are some good ideas. However, Most of those books are out of our date range (1500-1840), but I’ll try your last suggestion just for fun, James Legge, “The Nestorian Monument” 1888 (?)

          http://bit.ly/1a7Ym0q

          The “translation” looks a bit odd, as if it’s heavily tainted by western ideas, but at any rate, it will be interesting to see what texts share the most rare phrases, and what level of significance it will have.

          • Thanks. And again, this is great and interesting research so thanks so much for doing it and sharing.

          • The experiment is almost over and the top match to “The Nestorian Monument” (1888) is “Indian church history” (1818) which scored:

            UMS1 0.038
            UMS2 66.446
            UMS3 0.091

            Link to the top text:
            https://archive.org/details/cu31924029348145

            It was a good test, and here were the rare 4 grams:

            and-other-countries-as 0.2
            in-tine-cornell-university 0.2
            is-in-tine-cornell 0.2
            provinces-of-china-and 0.2
            tine-cornell-university-library 0.2
            and-partly-in-chinese 0.25
            book-is-in-tine 0.25
            china-in-the-seventh 0.25
            christian-missions-in-china 0.25
            erection-of-the-stone 0.25
            lines-of-the-inscription 0.25
            of-the-nestorians-were 0.25
            patriarch-of-the-nestorians 0.25
            some-workmen-digging-the 0.25
            the-nestorians-in-the 0.25
            time-of-the-erection 0.25
            workmen-digging-the-ground 0.25

            I think we need more books like this so we know what a miss looks like.

            Recently I’ve been trying to improve the clarity which I think everyone wants, so I’m trying to improve our baseline resolution. I don’t want the system to cull after 4/5000. I’d like to see a rare n-gram resolution of 1/100,000.

          • Let me make sure I’m understanding correctly. The BoM had a UMS1 score of .24 with its top book while this one had a UMS1 score of .038 indicating the that BoM was much more influenced by books from 1500-1830 than this one was? It looks like you don’t post UMS2 and UMS3 score for the BoM but I’m sure details are coming.

            I’m going to see if I can find some books translated closer to 1830 with more than 15,000 words as I think that it’s important to understand this before we can tell the significance of this on the authorship of the BoM. And again thanks for being so response and for doing this study!

          • To be clear, we need more baseline data to know which UMS calculation works best, but in most of my tests UMS2 looks wrong, while UMS1 and UMS3 are close to being accurate. It will take a lot of work to get all the baseline data, but for context, we tried tracing The late war’s influencers and they were influenced by (or shared a common influence with) these two sources:

            “An impartial and correct history of the war between the United States of America, and Great Britain”
            http://bit.ly/1azbQES

            UMS1 0.119
            UMS3 0.163

            The First Book of Napoleon vs The late war:

            UMS1 0.060
            UMS3 0.114

            Knowing the above, it looks like Gilbert Hunt and Joseph Smith may have had a shared interest in the ancient scriptural style books, particularly The First Book of Napoleon. But that makes sense since both of them were inspired to write books in the scriptural style, and both were popular enough to gain traction in society.

            For comparison, here are the UMS scores for The Book of Mormon and The late war:

            UMS1 0.249
            UMS3 0.178

            And here is the Book of Mormon vs The First Book of Napoleon:

            UMS1 0.116
            UMS3 0.090

            I hope that gives you some context. I think things will be more clear when we use ISS with the higher resolution weighting, and add a few cross checks.

          • BTW, I just noticed one mistake, I was not comparing apples to apples in the above comparisons, since “The late war” and “The Book of Mormon” comparisons had the KJV filtered out, while The Nestorian Monument had no filters. I just reran the comparison between The late war and The Book of Mormon without filters, and it gave these scores:

            UMS1 0.706
            UMS3 0.300

            To know if these are significant, you would have to filter out the other texts in the Biblical Style genre, which is what ISS is doing. You can see the latest results in the charts above.

            I am very curious about what ISS will turn up when we try tracing other books like The Nestorian Monument or The late war… and I have a new algorithm that should allow us to peer with more resolution into the 1700′s for possible influencers… exciting times.

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  8. I watched your YouTube presentation, and it is very interesting. I looked at the books you found, and even if they are not conclusively connected to the BoM, they shed light about the culture and beliefs of the time.

    As a french speaker, I wanted first to look at a french version of The First Book of Napoleon. It seems to me now that this book is wrongly attributed to Modeste Gruau:
    -no french version of the book can be found on internet
    -as you commented in your presentation, Gruau was 14 yo at the time of the book, it sounds impossible to me that a French boy could write something in a old KJV english style.
    -The french Wikipedia gives a list of works from him: everything was written between 1836 and 1871, and only in french.
    I think the archivers naively associated the author “Eliakim the Scribe” with Modeste Gruau simply because he also used the pseudonym “Eliakim” in some of his works. But there could be two authors using the same pseudonym: Eliakim is a biblical name with the same spelling in french and english. I think the true author of the book is British and not yet identified.

    The origin of “The rights of Christ” is also interesting, particularly from a Canadian perspective. There is already a lot to read on Wikipedia about the author David Willson and his sect The Children of Peace. Willson looks like a Canadian version of Joseph Smith: he viewed his small group as the new Israelites lost in the wilderness of Upper Canada, had visions and built a temple for his new Jerusalem.

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  10. A helpful addition to your premise would be to explain whether the Palmyra town or Dartmouth College libraries, which Joseph Smith would potentially have had access to, actually had copies of these books you reference. Joseph Smith had very little formal schooling, so that fact that this book was used as a school text isn’t particularly compelling.

    • I encourage you to investigate, but I’m not holding my breath. I believe that in 100 years from now it would be difficult to find records of every book I owned, borrowed, bought, heard someone review or talk about… That’s why I believe a textual analysis like this is the key to opening the past.

    • If you believe in Jesus Christ then you must seek truth. Joseph Smith was in fact educated & literate. The church has taught members that he was not capable of writing or reading well enough to write the Book of Mormon, but please research this and find the truth. Read his journals, written in his own handwriting, from the church’s own website— available by searching “First Vision accounts” on lds.org and choosing the option from the results that is on Jospehsmithpapers.org here’s a link to the exact pages. http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/history-circa-summer-1832?p=1
      You can see his handwriting is beautiful & he wrote a lot. If your honest then you will admit the church never led you to imagine he could write like he did. And while your there you should read his first vision account & see that, the first time he wrote it, he didn’t mention meeting Heavenly Father and he said he was 16 years old and the details of what happend before & after a different then what you were taught. He later changes his story, and several variations exist. He was a con man and he lied. Jesus is truth. The bible tells us to choose God above our family & any other humans. You must choose Jesus/TRUTH if you want to serve Heavenly Father. The bible says not to trust humans— your church is a business, as are many, but God is real and led you here for a reason.

  11. Having watched Craig Criddle’s talk on the origins, I was wondering if you’d consider splitting the BoM into different parts when running your analysis. At the very least, I’d be curious to know what the scores are if 1&2 Nephi are separated out (since as replacements for the 116 lost pages they might have an alternate source). Likewise, it’d be nice to see if Ether and Moroni show differing styles. (And yes, I saw the part in the video about stylistic drift, but I think I don’t fully grok it)

        • Besides the long bible quotes, there is not much plagiarism happening as far as I can tell. The source “hits” point us to where the inspiration may have come from, and are evidence of familiarity and comprehension of the subject being discussed. It looks like Joseph Smith didn’t read very much, since there are only a few sources rising from the noise (in the ISS experiment), but it appears he knew how to write (or dictate), even if the vocabulary was fairly poor. The word patterns show up the same way I’d expect from any author, but perhaps other authors would be harder to trace due to higher levels of exposure to education, travel, libraries, etc. This is something we need to test. In Joseph’s case, it looks like the primary influencers are so few that we can almost see his mind remix sources differently as he changes subject matter. I suspect it happens at an unconscious level for most authors as they ride their spark of creativity from one thought to the next, until they reach the end of their story. I’m still in awe at the insights we can gain through Big Data research, and can’t imagine the possibilities that future progress will bring.

  12. In response to your request:
    If you know of any pre-1840 books that fit the above points, please contact me so I can add it to our test list.

    Have you considered translated theatrical play texts? They may or may not meet the word count limit but the cultural influence on language could be enlightening. Lots of French, German, Russian plays were translated in the early 1800′s by both British English and American English playwrights some of known origin, some not, etc.

  13. Very interesting, very, very interesting I have a question though. Your studies still doesn’t take into account that Joseph Smith could have translated the plates using words that were culturally and relatively significant to him. Meaning that he reads these books, becomes familiar with their writing style and so when he is translating the plates the phrases he uses would be influenced by what he read wouldn’t it?

    The Single Authorship indicates that it is all his own work and not the work of multiple people so if one author was translating an ancient text wouldn’t his interpretation of those ancient words be reflected of his cultural environment and from books he had read?

    This is a sincere and genuine question. I am not active at all in the church and I am asking out of intellectual honesty about this point if you could elaborate.

    • Thanks for the great question, I addressed the difference between an author and a translator in the presentation, so I suppose I’d need more evidence that anything more than authorship was going on. Did you find any such evidence?

    • If Joseph Smith had actually used ‘the gold plates’ to translate the BoM, that might be a valid point. However, several eyewitness accounts of his method of ‘translating’ was that he didn’t even use the plates but rather put his ‘seer stone’ into his hat, stuck his face into the hat, and then dictated the words to his scribe. It would seem that he was familiar enough with a number of books that he could ‘synthesize’ his stories in the BoM from them, editing on the fly.

      • I agree. If I consider our preliminary results significant, then things start to become clear.

        When you look at how much is lifted from The Koran, The First Book of Napoleon and The Late War, it looks like there is nothing truly new or interesting happening. Joseph’s book even discusses the hot topics of the day: infant baptism, the origins of the American Indians, Israel as an olive tree branch that needs to be grafted into the natural tree, etc. Most of the big religious and cultural questions of the 1820′s are in that book, but the 1820′s speculation lead to factual errors. For example the DNA evidence now shows that the origin of the Native Americans was not Israelite after all, even though it made for an exciting 1830′s narrative. No modern issues such as gay rights, abortion, birth control, Internet, globalization, Big Data, vaccinations, Alzheimer’s, or stem cell issues are raised in that book. The book may teach us how to dig dirt “round about” our cities, just as The Late war tells us to do, but it won’t stop a modern war with nuclear bombs or air strikes, the real way to do that is to stop calling dark skinned people cursed, and outsiders as gentiles, we need peace, not intolerance and separation. It’s not a book for our day.

        When I started seeing the Koran’s influence show up in the ISS yesterday, it clicked for me. Things started to make a lot of sense. Let’s suppose for a moment that Joseph’s ideas did come from The Koran — and he models his life after Mohamed:

        1. An angel visits a new prophet
        2. Tells him Christianity and the current scriptures are corrupt
        3. Angel gives him new scripture
        4. The prophet claims the new scripture is the most correct book on earth
        5. Starts a new controversial religion and claims it’s the only true one
        6. The prophet leads his men in various military operations
        7. Starts marrying multiple wives
        (And so on)

        It is starting to look really transparent to me. There is even some evidence from at least 3 sources (Thomas Marsh, Orson Hyde and George Walter) that Joseph said:

        “I will be to this generation a second Mohammed, whose motto in treating for peace was the Alcoran [Koran] or the Sword”

        Adding to all this, it looks like the Hebraisms in the Book of Mormon are worse than the Hebraisms in The late war (according to Grunder’s analysis). And when I did a vocabulary density test on the Book of Mormon it looked like it had a very low vocabulary density compared to The Bible (and every other book I tested against). Same with Chiasmus, it looks like people are finding more chiasmus in the Book of Mormon than actually exists due to extensive repetition. It’s sad, but with every analysis I apply, it really does reveal an uneducated young man’s work. A man who is definitely a white European who thinks the Native Americans are dark because of a curse, rather than miraculously revealing the then unknown facts that white people are the ones with the recent mutation for white skin, not the other way around.

        To summarize, it looks like there are more significant parallels to The Koran, The First Book of Napoleon and The late war than any of the positive evidence for the book’s authenticity. If the book were true, I’d expect specific and rare parallels to show up all the time in the Americas, like Israelite DNA, Hebrew language or Egyptian hieroglyphics, but the findings are lacking. There are a few hits that parallel almost any ancient culture, and sadly no significant archaeological discoveries are exclusive to a real Book of Mormon culture. And even if we ignore the anachronisms like steel swords, horses and chariots, there are too many KJV errors from 1611 AD copied into the Book of Mormon to take it as a serious translation from the non-extant “Gold Plates”.

        It’s pretty sad to see so many of my childhood years wasted on this book.

        • Hello from

          http://www.pearltrees.com/awhn

          The reason why you will find the Qur’an [Koran] as a primary source book for the BoM, is due to the history of Joseph Smith with [Free] Masonry, the Jesuitic so-called ‘protestant’ arm, and its direct occultic connections to the Qur’an, Islam and Mohammed. He was not only intimately connected himself, even by his own words, but also through his family, friends & connections to that [secretive] society.

          Commonly quoted sources:

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mormonism_and_Freemasonry#Historical_connections

          Of course, most non-LDS [that study these things], ex-LDS, and even LDS these days clearly recognize the connection, not only in worship, in temple, in temple clothing, in symbolism, liturgy, etc and have written on and documented these things for years, though most cease the tracing with Masonry, and do not continue the chain.

          The Qur’an itself, along with Mohammed and Islam, and their history is intimately connected back, in its origins to Roman Catholicism, of whom is the sub-propagator [the prime, being Satan] of the false system to wipe out true and Biblical Christianity. It also needed an antithesis, a front.

          Further details may be seen here:

          The Islamic Connection:
          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCmSBfVXEmA

          Revolutions, Tyrants & Wars:
          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrZ617fTHzc

          &c.

          But why the [Islamic] Qur’an, and not another book that Masonry claims to also uphold, like the [Hebrew] Torah/Pentatuech or the [Christian] Bible? Notice, very seriously the origins of Masonry, and the words of its own highest Masters, for instance Albert Pike, the revered:

          “The Holy Bible Square and Compass are not only styled the Great Lights in Masonry but they are also technically called the Furniture of the Lodge and as you have seen it is held that there is no Lodge without them This has sometimes been made a pretext for excluding Jews from our Lodges because they cannot regard the New Testament as a holy book The Bible is an indispensable part of the furniture of a Christian Lodge only because it is the sacred book of the Christian religion The Hebrew Pentateuch in a Hebrew Lodge and the Koran in a Mohammedan one belong on the Altar and ONE OF THESE AND THE SQUARE AND COMPASS PROPERLY UNDERSTOOD ARE THE GREAT LIGHTS WHICH A MASON MUST WALK AND WORK…” [Albert Pike; Morals and Dogma, Page 11] – http://books.google.com/books?id=QWGHOHr7yvYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=in%20a%20Hebrew%20lodge&f=false

          Notice, it truly says “ONE of these” and not “each of these” three books [Pentateuch, Bible and Koran]. Well which is it? According to Masonry and the occultic sources themselves, they despise the Torah/Pentateuch and Tanakh, as well as the Bible, and must invert its teachings to ‘accept’ it into the lodge, and thus through the “square and compass” are things properly understood.

          Brother, I share with you the Truth:

          The First Angels Message of Revelation 14:6-12
          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDl4D0kcoi0

          The Third Angels Message of Revelation 14:6-12
          http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbdtcm6jzHA

          It is grand that you have been led out of the errors of the LDS theology, but now do not stand still, but continue to seek the Truth.

          http://www.pearltrees.com/awhn

      • I also wonder if there’s a process of oral composition going on here, with many of those n-grams you identify functioning a bit like the formulaic phrases with which oral literatures are full. Have you seen this book on the Qur’an, doing something similar to your work, but for the Qur’an—and making the oral connection? >>>> https://rowman.com/ISBN/9780739183571

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  16. You may also want to apply your tests to Don Quixote. It was written in 1605 (Volume 2 in 1615). It has also been translated many, many times. Particularly in 1742 and 1885.

  17. The conversation on the other board mentioned American Revolution by Snowden, which also used Columbia and Sanhedrim, and scriptural language. It has the s/f problem as well as low quality transfer into text. Are you going to be able to plug that into your data? The tremendous respect for the elderly Benjamin Franklin has my mind running away with itself. I just started on editing it into a clean doc, but don’t want to waste the time if you are going to do more with that possibility.

    • Wow, nice find! We have a messy edition of this book in the dataset dated to 1823 which ranks 505th position against the Book of Mormon. I just found another poorly scanned 1802 version which I uploaded to experiment #69 — The late war tracer. It turns out this is by far the most likely influencer on The late war. Also when I compared this 1802 edition to the Book of Mormon it ranked 69th. If you could clean this up, it would be awesome! This is the file I used: http://bit.ly/180bC7C

        • You’re amazing! The scores are so high between this book and The late war, that I’m guessing Gilbert Hunt was not only familiar with Snowden’s work, but copied some parts of it.

          You might want to split the work up into sections so others can help too?

          • I don’t have that much more to do. There is a long poem at the end that I put in a different file. It is not in scriptural style.

            There are some part of it that are so messed up, it is amazing that you got any data out of it.

            I’m noting some very good parallels with the BoM as I go. I don’t think they are in Hunt.

          • I should have it completed tomorrow morning. Can you send me an e-mail so I can send it to you when completed?

            If tightening up the text still shows a close relationship with Late War, and a much more distant relationship with the BoM, that would certainly validate the methodology.

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  21. Nothing to do with the research, but if The Qur’an had such an impact, any theories on why did Joseph and TBoM never talk about Islam? I always found it odd the book and religion for our day never mentions or talks about things in quite possibly the most dominant religion, but I just assumed he had no idea what it was. Did Joseph miss the part where Islam isn’t Christian? Or did he assume it was a dead faith? Seems even stranger that he probably read The Qur’an.

    • Great questions, and I’m sure it would take a lot of research to find all the answers to them, but did you read my little post above where I mentioned that Joseph did talk about Islam:

      “I will be to this generation a second Mohammed, whose motto in treating for peace was the Alcoran [Koran] or the Sword” -Joseph Smith

      So perhaps it’s just a recursion or copy of what Mohammed did: Denounce all current scripture and religion as corrupt, in order to pave the way for a new scripture and religion. It’s a template for success, and I’ve seen others like Ellen White and Charles Taze Russell use this method successfully as well.

      • Ellen G. White did no such thing. She never denounced “all current Scripture”, but rather upheld them always, neither did she ever say that “all … religion as corrupt” to then start a new religion, and in fact goes against the entire theology of the “remnant”. Ellen G. White, also never wrote “new Scripture”. To say these things, even in passing or summation, is truly ignorance of the historical and even written facts, even also from her own pen.

        “The Lord has sent his people much instruction, line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little, and there a little. Little heed is given to the Bible, and the Lord has given a lesser light to lead men and women to the greater light.” – Review and Herald, January 20, 1903

        In fact, just read Chapter 4 of Selected Messages, Book 3, beginning on Page 29 – http://text.egwwritings.org/publication.php?pubtype=Book&bookCode=3SM&lang=en&collection=2&section=all&pagenumber=29

        I quote:

        “Relation of E. G. White Writings to the Bible Recognized in First Book—I recommend to you, dear reader, the Word of God as the rule of your faith and practice. By that Word we are to be judged. God has, in that Word, promised to give visions in the “last days”; not for a new rule of faith, but for the comfort of his people, and to correct those who err from Bible truth. Thus God dealt with Peter when he was about to send him to preach to the Gentiles.—A Sketch of the Christian Experience and Views of Ellen G. White, 64 (1851). (Reprinted in Early Writings, 78.).

        Not to Take the Place of the Word—The Lord desires you to study your Bibles. He has not given any additional light to take the place of his Word. This light is to bring confused minds to his Word, which, if eaten and digested, is as the lifeblood of the soul. Then good works will be seen as light shining in darkness.—Letter 130, 1901.

        Get Proofs From the Bible—In public labor do not make prominent, and quote that which Sister White has written, as authority to sustain your positions. To do this will not increase faith in the testimonies. Bring your evidences, clear and plain, from the Word of God. A [page 69-70] “Thus saith the Lord” is the strongest testimony you can possibly present to the people. Let none be educated to look to Sister White, but to the mighty God, who gives instruction to Sister White.—Letter 11, 1894.”

        I therefore, ask politely, that you may remove your comment about sister White, until you have read her material for yourself and not from sources which are themselves corrupt in their practices and quotations.

        http://adventist-defense-league.blogspot.com/2007/10/introduction-why-we-need-to-do-our-own.html

        I present to you a gift:

        http://www.pearltrees.com/awhn

        I may be reached for contact at – http://www.christianforums.com/

        Contact User, “Shiny Gospel Shoes”, by PM.

        *******

        Charles Taze Russell on the other hand, had also, like Joseph Smith, connections with Masonry, occultic sources, and those things are fully documented, even to his burial shroud and works.

    • Definitely possible. There are so many hits between the Koran and The Book of Mormon, that it looks very suspicious to me. I can’t even share all the 2-grams and 4-grams as there are too many, but here are the 5-grams (after removing all bible 5-grams):

      the greater part of them
      the name of the most
      them in the right way
      unto you that ye may
      created the heavens and the
      for a certain number of
      is christ the son of
      which is prepared for the
      them according to that which
      had not been guilty of
      of god and if ye
      of that which hath been
      shall declare unto you that
      he shall declare unto you
      unto men that they may
      creator of heaven and earth
      which is in your minds
      if ye do ye will
      for if ye do ye
      and to be praised for
      against them because of the
      because of the iniquity of
      of the iniquity of those
      the iniquity of those who
      god they shall be numbered
      them because of their iniquity
      they shall not go forth
      be that they shall be
      of god which had been
      them that they should give
      upon you that ye may
      covenant which he hath made
      his covenant which he hath
      to believe in him and
      in the hearts of these
      or that which is right
      which is to come for
      of god and if they
      for you that ye may
      in the darkness of the
      all things and he is
      he hath created all things
      unto thee that thou mayest
      had spoken unto them and
      of the world and also
      and that ye may know
      that ye may understand and
      surely come to pass neither
      because of their iniquity and
      they might bring them to
      that which ye have done
      a great number of men
      which i have received from
      for that which had been
      part of the people which
      of heaven and of earth
      heaven and of earth and
      at the last day o
      in the form of a
      him in the form of
      and the needy and the
      of the devil for he
      the devil for he is
      the sound of his voice
      of his voice they are
      unto me and believe in
      of the father shall be
      time according to that which
      are pleasing unto god and
      which are pleasing unto god
      things which are pleasing unto
      that god should come down
      which is to come wherefore
      that they should not believe
      that which is good unto
      who hath created you and
      eat and drink of the
      it had not been for
      they know that god knoweth
      ye know not and he
      god that ye may prosper
      any of them and to
      you and they shall not
      from god and they are
      saying o lord thou hast
      shall be better for the
      of god and that he
      in the cause of god
      one to the other and
      with the holy spirit and
      of god and he shall
      to the presence of god
      which cometh from god an
      that which ye have no
      m there is no god
      as though they had never
      men that they may be
      and he departed from them
      will declare unto you the
      i will declare unto you
      his people and he said
      up the hearts of the
      in that which they had
      lord that they may be
      have no power over them
      no power over them but
      come into their land and
      of his people that he
      wives and children and no
      to the knowledge of god
      it into the hearts of
      put it into the hearts
      were so great that the
      but one god and that
      men shall come forth from
      come when the earth shall
      that i may be an
      are in our hands and
      god at the last day
      into the presence of god
      and i fear lest the
      be cast into prison and
      cast into prison and he
      when that day shall come
      for the devil is a
      then come unto me with
      for he is the most
      and he turned from them
      those scriptures which have been
      o lord thou hast given
      it unto me and he
      and he went to the
      what is it that ye
      them what is it that
      unto them what is it
      and when they had given
      darkness of the night and
      were with him and we
      to drive them out of
      and we will gather them
      we will gather them together
      abominable in the sight of
      together and we will not
      because of that which is
      know that they shall be
      that thou mayest declare unto
      unto them and that they
      and put their trust in
      of that which is in
      the people because of the
      them and that they shall
      and that they shall be
      at which ye could not
      that they may bear their
      unto you that ye might
      which they had done and
      shall not be suffered to
      the goodness of god and
      he hath no power over
      had been made known unto
      been made known unto them
      come unto you and if
      and the wiles of the
      who hath created you from
      the power of god therefore
      in the defence of the
      we have no reason to
      lord hath commanded me to
      hath commanded us to do
      hair of the head and
      by the hair of the
      and aaron said unto him
      and i am the first
      that which they had been
      which he hath covenanted w
      they have come unto us
      their hearts that they may
      put your trust in him
      the truth of his words
      come unto them in the
      of them did not believe
      part of them did not
      by night and by day
      had it not been for
      and the lord of the
      it not been for the
      until he came to the
      the goodness of god but
      on them and that they
      i declare unto you that
      night and by day and
      that day shall they be
      god who hath created you
      he departed out of the
      to the wicked for the
      god and behold they were
      it unto thee in the
      come unto them that they
      unto us that we might
      the pains of hell and
      pains of hell and the
      it is not expedient that
      and he hath made you
      before god at the last
      the greater part of the
      it be unto those who
      and if he had not
      them there is no god
      unto them there is no
      no power over you to
      and their houses and their
      and a part of them
      that they should have the
      him to whom he shall
      a man who seeketh to
      then shall he say unto
      you that when ye shall
      say o that we had
      the eyes of the people
      hath created them and i
      of the forbidden fruit and
      and we will gather the
      when he was brought before
      they were a wicked and
      said so shall it be
      right hand and it shall
      unto them do ye believe
      that it shall be so
      god that they may be
      to pray unto him and
      he will cause them to
      for us that we should
      of the things which are
      they shall be cast into
      him who hath created you
      a sign unto them that
      sign unto them that the
      them and this was the
      unto his people and be
      to be judged at the
      be judged at the last
      of god according to his
      it were not for the
      if it were not for
      are the words which he
      the words which he shall
      and say o lord i
      that he is a liar
      and that ye should not
      from the pains of hell
      the last day and whoso
      as though they had been
      fruit of the tree of
      is the right way and
      and to teach them the
      them and to teach them
      you then shall ye be
      as though they were a
      believed in the words of
      them at the last day
      sight of god and it
      your wives and your children
      of god and whoso believeth
      unto them that the water
      them with his spirit and
      in them and they are
      their backs and they shall
      you and we will not
      their hearts were hardened and
      of his mercy and he
      in the hearts of those
      because they believed in the
      and who shall say that
      them and they were commanded
      in the name of thy
      been revealed unto me that
      to destroy them and to
      though they had been the
      that day ye shall be
      take him and bind him
      him and bind him and
      shall be opened and shall
      there shall be no place
      that god who had created
      god who had created them
      god who hath created them
      is to come and the
      and we will cast them
      ye shall have no place
      that which is right but
      lord thou hast given us
      at the time of their
      unto me that they are
      it hath been spoken by
      had been one of the
      which he hath covenanted with
      and we will try the
      and they would not have
      them in the valley of
      pains of hell and it
      and also the people of
      according to that which they
      of heaven and earth i
      a small part of the
      on and they were not
      gave unto the children of
      to the covenant which he
      the covenant which he hath
      should come unto them and
      come unto them and a
      is the knowledge of the
      people and when they had
      that god who hath created
      the truth and the right
      believe in him that he
      in him that he may
      shall appear unto them and

      • After my review of them, I agree that much of the wording with the Koran 5-grams is somewhat different from OT phrases, simply because they came through different translations in different languages. I am still unsure enough at this point to not pronounce it a false positive.

        Seth, someone could have been supplying Smith and Co. with books, an outline of ideas, or even pre-written manuscript.

        I am also suspicious of Rights of Christ. It seems to be nothing more than rewording of scripture, much like the preaching in the BoM.

        Once I get the mapping done, I will compare with thematic parallels. And see if the 4-grams and thematic parallels occur together. The BoM, Late War, 1st Napoleon, and American Revolution are closely interrelated. I have no idea what I will find yet.

        I do see a pervasive and obvious thematic parallel with 1st Napoleon.

        The Koran would be difficult to read for thematic parallels, I think I will wait on that. I have read a modern Qu’ran in English translation, and it is not easy.

        • The 1822 Koran & 1830 Book of Mormon have a number of shared 7 grams (These are not in the KJV):

          “because of the iniquity of those who”
          “created the heavens and the earth and”
          “according to that which is just and”
          “things which are pleasing unto god and”
          “put it into the hearts of the”
          “if it had not been for the”
          “unto them [.] what is it that ye”
          “to drive them out of the land”
          “by the hair of the head and”
          “in the sight of god and it”
          “of the fruit of the tree of”
          “of that which is to come and”
          “that which is to come and the”
          “the covenant which he hath made with”

          I would be careful interpreting these 7 grams without a baseline and further tests, but here is my interpretation:

          First of all, I’m interested in finding other versions of the Koran to see how it compares to the Book of Mormon. I’m curious to know if the 1822 version is particularly more similar to The Book of Mormon or not. For example, the 1822 version in our database may match best because it has fewer OCR errors than other versions, rather than it being a closer match. This warrants further skepticism and inquiry.

          Also when it comes to longer n-grams, we can’t say that each additional word in a match is thousands of times more significant than a smaller n-gram match, because we know that there are a fairly limited number of ways in which English phrases can be put together, and you’ll notice that many of the sentences are full of conjugations and connectors that have more to do with English grammar than rare meaning. With that said, a 7 gram match is generally much more significant than a 6 gram, which in turn is much more significant than a 5 gram match, and so on.

          And of course matching does not imply direct copying or even influence. If two books can be shown to share a significant amount of extremely rare phrases or patterns, then it may be a case of common origin or influence.

          In a future analysis, we could put together a baseline showing how often certain 7-gram phrases appear in English, perhaps showing their mutation rates when phrases are borrowed, and so on, which will help us understand these sorts of “connections”.

          But for now we are currently working on a new framework, which will make it easier for the public to analyze texts for themselves and draw their own conclusions.

          • I assume you are referring to the Sales’s Koran translation. Besides the older and very rare Ross translation I am unaware of any other translation before the 1860′s?

            Are there others you have discovered?

            Also these 7 grams don’t strike me as being particularly helpful, they could easily be remixes from passages in Psalms or other biblical passages without any reference to the Koran.

            Especially since Sales used the KJV for his model of translation.

            However the vast number of hits is striking, but how could be sure it isn’t coincidental if the only variations are based on printers errors, edition variations, or scanning considerations if the Sales is the only version available in other additions.

            Another problem is that many (most?) editions of 19th and 18th century copies of Sales edition do not credit him as translator.

            However, considering the general theological overlap between many early Mormon teachings, Islam, and Smith’s self-referential comparisons to Mohammed I think it is a fascinating parallel.

            My 1822 edition of Sales Al-koran is from Lancaster, PA and was in the village I was born in and came from their mid-19th century academy, so it was certainly available in very small towns in the early to mid-19th century Pennsylvania, I would think upstate New York would be similar.

  22. Have you tried looking at more recent books like The Book of Jeraneck or The Sealed Portion of The Book of Mormon? These were quite clearly influenced by the Book of Mormon (and Matthew Gill’s other revelations). Also Sidney Rigdon continued to write revelations. These could all be compared but would only show they may have been influenced by the BofM. There are also other revelatory/scriptural writings outside of the Brigham Young branch that could be looked at. If you wanted to look at pre BofM publication couldn’t you analysis pre-1830 writings of early Mormons? The Joseph Smith Project online may provide you with transcriptions. It may help build a picture of ‘influence’ or word choice and usage on a more significant level.

  23. The translation of the Koran is pretty strange compared to the one’s I’m familiar with (and you can translate that book many ways; a good chunk of it betrays its at least massive Syriac roots which Muslims refuse to admit and for the obvious retained words of which they have provided invented Arab etymologies and corresponding absurd meanings; which makes the book largely nonsensical, without even getting into the fragments and collage aspects of the general structure of it, or all the Mohammedan legend that really started a century and a half after the foundation of the Arabic empire, and which Muslim clerics have used for 13 centuries to interpret the Koran, in somewhat of grotesque circular motion).

    Maybe this one is in a style mixing early 1800s English and the KJV of the Bible? Anyhow, if there’s such a closeness between the Book of Mormon and that version of the Koran, it could be useful to try to find out who did that latter translation (which doesn’t seem to be indicated in the title page) and put whatever else he wrote in the data mix.

    In closing: does anyone sincerely believe that Joe Jr. produced the BoM? Why would it be filled with Campbellite theology if it were so, to cite just one of the obstacles to that theory?

    Seems obvious to me that if there was just one author (aside from all the obvious copy/pastes that is) then it was Rigdon. And Spalding’s Manuscript Found was deliberately not written in the scriptural style, while the other Manuscript he’s supposed to have written and Rigdon is supposed to have swiped and exploited was – the two have never been expected to be alike in form. Furthermore, Rigdon could have pretty much rewritten the whole Spalding story, adding his notions and his style all along, thus creating the necessary markers for a single-author result, no?

    I believe there’s no chance at all that Joe Smith Jr. wrote the BoM himself, a fortiori by himself. At best, he probably recounted and suggested the introduction in the story of his father’s dream and stuff like that to Rigdon in the late 1820s.

  24. Chris and Dwayne,

    Are you aware of this paper?

    Unsupervised Decomposition of a Document into Authorial Components

    Moshe Koppel et al.

    Dept. of Computer Science BarIlan University Ramat Gan, Israel

    (http://aclweb.org/anthology//P/P11/P11-1136.pdf)

    Abstract

    We propose a novel unsupervised method for separating out distinct authorial components of a document. In particular, we show that, given a book artificially “munged” from two thematically similar biblical books, we can separate out the two constituent books almost perfectly. This allows us to automatically recapitulate many conclusions reached by Bible scholars over centuries of research. One of the key elements of our method is exploitation of differences in synonym choice by different authors.

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  26. Chris, many are discussing the race and priesthood piece published, and whether the writers of the book of mormon were racist themselves. Some are asking if select scriptures in the book of mormon will be disavowed. Have you found literary sources to blackness curse verses, or the inverse “righteouss skin bleach” process? “And their curse was taken from them, and their skin became white like unto the Nephites;” 3 nephi 2.

  27. Hey guys, this Maybe a daft question but if a text is translated from another language into English (which the bom claims to be) then surely it would be influenced by how they worded it at that period of time? For example if your talking to a deaf person it would be said differently to a hearing person. I did read most of what you’ve written and find it interesting, but lost concentration towards the end ( probably because it’s 2 in the morning). Also from what I understand the bible has influenced how people speak and write( just like Shakespeare ) if the bom draws influence from the bible the surely a lot of books would have common ancestry where that it concerned. Just afew thoughts
    Emily :)

  28. Pingback: Napoleon Book Partly Basis For Book Of Mormon?

  29. I don’t know if this is of any use to your research, but a large scale late 18th century translation project was the edition of Plutarch’s Lives by the Langhorne brothers, both of whom wrote additional original works for comparison. An ancient text translated approximately 50 years prior to the BOM, whoever, they did not seek to emulate an archaic style.

    Also, there are many smaller classical works translated in the US and Britain in the late 18th and early 19th century. I would think the most useful translations to look at would be translations of the ante-Nicaean and Nicean Church fathers, they were usually translated into a quasi Biblical style and should show some interesting parallels for cutting out cultural noise in comparisons.

    There is also the William Henry Ireland forged Shakespeare plays from the 1790′s and the Lays of Ossian, another work that claimed to be a translation of an ancient work that never existed by the poet James Macpherson who is their author, although he claimed oral tradition as his source, he began publishing in the 1760′s.

  30. Forgive me for writing again, but I noticed in your list of close verbal matches the fathers, Josephus, and apocryphal gospels, did you run the tests against them for analysis as well?

    Two other thoughts occurred to me:

    While newspapers from the surrounding region would be less than your 15,000 word count they would have been a primary source of information for the Smith family, and we know that at one point they subscribed due to the past due notice published against them indicating a likely two year run – the aggregate of two years worth of the paper from that time should well be over 15,000 – although further complicated by the fact that the paper was likely 90 to 95% reprints of article taken from other national, regional, and foreign papers – but it would be an interesting avenue to explore for analysis.

    Finally, how does your study take into account regionalisms in grammar, syntax and dialect in the 1830 edition? Would not this also be a valuable item to consider – I’m afraid my training in more traditional methods may leave my statements open to laughable errors, but I am very intrigued by the way in which this sort of meta-analysis can be married to traditional forms of historical and literary creation and am very excited that the it may be available to lay scholars without an extensive background in the relevant fields. I would highly interested in a study of early modern books 1490-1623 and the writings of Shakespeare as represented in the various quartos and the first folio.

    The other difficulty is the works that might be relevant, but which have yet to be scanned.

    My thanks for all the work you have done, your sharing of it, and the honest response to criticism. This is how scholarship advances knowledge.

  31. Can you please run the Oberlin Spaulding Manuscript through your algorithm to see if there is a connection with the Late War, First Book of Napoleon, and the Koran?

    • That’s a good idea, however we’re currently in the middle of upgrading all the hardware and software, transitioning to the cloud, so we can probably run this on the new hardware when it’s ready.

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  36. Hi Chris,

    Thank you so much for the work you and your brother have done! Your quest for the truth is a noble one that I share myself, and your research will only continue to help free people from dogmatic control (and countless future generations!).

    Is there a chance you could post your slides from the “How the Book of Mormon Destroyed Mormonism” video? Specifically the one near the end (1:12:20) that shows all the literary influences on the Book of Mormon? I would be very grateful, thanks!

  37. Hello Chris, I talked to Grant Palmer the other day about a book written by Meredith Sheets and Kendal Sheets. The book is called Book of Mormon book of Lies.
    http://www.bookofmormonbookoflies.com/theevidence.php It contains information that just amazes. I wonder if you have or might take a look at it and tell me what you think about it. I sent Grant a copy to review and I think you would really find it most interesting and informational…Sincerely, Kent

  38. Add these books to your list to check (source: http://www.bookofmormonbookoflies.com/theevidence.php):

    William Marsden, The Travels of Marco Polo, 1818

    Joseph Smith, The Book of Mormon, 1830

    James Duncan, The Modern Traveller, Mexico, 1825

    James Duncan, The Modern Traveller, Arabia, 1825

    Robert Kerr, Voyages and Travels Vol. 3 (Columbus), 1811

    Robert Kerr, Voyages and Travels Vol. 3-4 (Cortes), 1811

    Robert Kerr, Voyages and Travels Vol. 7 (Verthema), 1812

    Notes on Mexico, 1824

    Lucy Smith, Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith, 1853

    John Pinkerton, Voyages and Travels Vol. 1 (Europe), 1808

    John Pinkerton, Voyages and Travels Vol. 10 (Arabia-partial), 1811

    John Pinkerton, Voyages and Travels Vol. 13 (N. America- Kalm), 1812

    John Ranking, Conquest of Mexico, Peru, by the Mongols, 1827

    Millenial Star, Ruins in Central America, 1842

    Mark Hoffman – Anthon Forgery (Deseret News), 1980

  39. Chris,

    That’s some interesting research you did. I’m sure it took a lot of time no matter how good of a programmer you are. I guess I see the results a bit differently but still interesting for me. What I see from this is essentially that Joseph Smith chose to target the same style of English used by the king James translators when he did his translation (I do believe the book of Mormon to represent an actual account of real people). I think there are some good reasons for that. Namely that the Bible had made the old-English ancient scripture style of writing widely available across many different forms of English and had all ready been around for over two centuries through the Bible. That style has staying power and covers a wide audience. What other form of English was he supposed to use? It wouldn’t go far if he just targetted his own, back-woods New York farmer style English. He had to target some style of English. To me it makes sense to use the same writing style used in the Bible.

    Another point is that writing style does not magically turn something into scripture, as your other references clearly demonstrate. Just because you choose to say “forty and ninth year” instead of “forty nine years” doesn’t make the difference between scripture and not scripture. It’s just a writing style. Whether it was translated into the same artistic writing style used by the Bible or not, doesn’t make a difference to me about whether it is true or not. He had to use some style and that

    To me, the difference between it being true or false can only be determined by the substance of the message within the book. If the doctrine it teaches will save a soul, it is true. If the doctrine it teaches will damn you, it is false. In a way, I agree that the book of Mormon will probably destroy Mormonism, but not because it isn’t true, but precisely because it is true. If you are willing to accept what it is saying at face value, what organization wants to jump up and claim to be the targets for teachings like this: “They wear stiff necks and high heads; yea, and because of pride, and wickedness, and abominations, and whoredoms, they have all gone astray save it be a few, who are the humble followers of Christ; nevertheless, they are led, that in many instances they do err because they are taught by the precepts of men.” (2 Nephi 28:14). Notice that “all gone astray”. All. But the few who are not are “led”, they are not the leaders. Or this one: “O ye wicked and perverse and stiffnecked people, why have ye built up churches unto yourselves to get gain? Why have ye transfigured the holy word of God, that ye might bring damnation upon your souls? … O ye pollutions, ye hypocrites, ye teachers, who sell yourselves for that which will canker, why have ye polluted the holy church of God?” (Mormon 8:38). What latter day church could possibly qualify for having “polluted the holy church of God”? Now don’t everybody rush up at once to claim that! And I guess I’ll throw this one in there, too: “At that day when the Gentiles shall sin against my gospel, and shall reject the fulness of my gospel, and shall be lifted up in the pride of their hearts above all nations, and above all the people of the whole earth, and shall be filled with all manner of lyings, and of deceits, and of mischiefs, and all manner of hypocrisy, and murders, and priestcrafts, and whoredoms, and of secret abominations; and if they shall do all those things, and shall reject the fulness of my gospel, behold, saith the Father, I will bring the fulness of my gospel from among them.” (3 Nephi 16:10) There, Christ is speaking of those to whom the fulness of the gospel will be offered in the latter days. What group could this possibly be referring to? Again, don’t everyone rush to claim to be that special group which rejects the fulness and has this laundry list of problems (not “if” they sin against the gospel, but “when”). So it’s not surprising to me why the content of the Book of Mormon gets ignored and keeps the whole church under condemnation. What do you expect a condemned church to look like anyway?
    Well, thanks for your work. I actually may be interested in the code sometime if I can get it and use it right. I have a different purpose in mind for that kind of word matching which may be helpful to me.
    I’m curious to know what your response to my point may be. I have some other points, but I think these are the more major ones. Feel free to email me.

    Thanks again,

    Jared

    • Thanks for your comments Jared. We are making all the code available on github, but we are in the middle of porting it for nodejs based servers, so it is not all ready yet:

      https://github.com/wordtreefoundation

      We are currently in the process of testing whether or not King James English (KJE) is confounding the results in our study. I am open to this hypothesis, but it still doesn’t explain why The Late War beat so many other KJE books in our comparison.

      For a summary of all the strange coincidences linking The Late War to the Book of Mormon, you can take a look here:

      http://wordtreefoundation.github.io/thelatewar/

      Also I hope you find it useful that I point out a flaw in one of your arguments. If you find this too offensive, I will take it down — but I think it will serve a purpose in helping others who are still struggling with developing their critical thinking skills.

      You wrote:

      “To me, the difference between it being true or false can only be determined by the substance of the message within the book. If the doctrine it teaches will save a soul, it is true. If the doctrine it teaches will damn you, it is false.”

      Your statement shocked me! So any book that teaches soul saving material is true? Your statement is provably false.

      To demonstrate, here is a book I wrote which is two sentences long, containing “soul saving material”. But it is not historically true:

      “It came to pass that I, Bill Jackson, being highly favored of the Lord, lived three hundred and sixty two years before the birth of Christ, and went amongst the people preaching unto them faith in Jesus Christ, repentance, baptism for the remission of sins, and the reception of the Holy Ghost. After retiring to my house that day, I played on my Apple iPad for the rest of the evening.”

      In thousands of years from now, this two sentence “book” will still contain soul saving material according to certain philosophies, but can be reliably refuted as historically impossible. They may even be able to date it as a 21st century fiction.

      Even if your statement were true, that any book containing “soul saving material” is automatically deemed historically true, then I still have one final objection. What exactly is soul saving material? With tens of thousands of differing religions small and large, and a million different varieties of philosophy both current and yet to be invented, you can’t really say that one particular assumption about how souls are to be saved is better than any other without significant proof.

      In summary, the logic seems circular: Because the Book of Mormon is true, it contains soul saving material. Because it contains soul saving material, it’s true.

      This is so very backwards.

  40. Point well taken. That wasn’t my intention and I made a poor statement with it and you’re right to see that flaw. I hope you can forgive my brevity, too. In general I was just trying to say that the content is more important than the presentation. It’s just the old saying to not judge a book by its cover. I don’t judge the book of Mormon by the style of what is said, but by the message that is being communicated.
    As far as what I find most important about the book… you don’t have to accept that view for yourself. What I find most valuable is whether the teachings in the book of Mormon really will save your soul. That is number one to me. Details like how a sentence is structured, or whether the name was exactly the best way in English to represent how it actually sounded coming out of their mouths is not that important to me. I think God is a whole lot less anal and militant than some people think He is. I think He can accept a book even if it is flawed with unprovable history. If He can let blatant sinners, like you and me into heaven, even with my obvious faults which I am sure are very annoying to others, then I think he can find a book acceptable even if it has flaws by our standards.
    I’ll add also that I do find a lot of things “true” because they come from God by my standard. I was listening to a song the other day from 80′s rock that blows me away. I don’t know if the authors intended it, but I think they had some pretty profound truths to share. They were probably even shot up on drugs at the time. I don’t know. I don’t really care. I’ve read things from the Daoists that I find amazing. There are things from Buddhists and New Age groups that I think really do come from God. Things from the Koran, Nag Hammadi, etc… There is a lot of material that I think God is giving us out there. When I read the book of Mormon, I feel like God speaks to me through that book, too. I understand there are things about it that can be very irritating to a lot of people, probably number one that the church “owns” it. But I feel like God speaks to me through it. So why should I throw it out over details that are not yet possible to verify. History is not a stable medium for anybody to build a foundation on. So it doesn’t really bother me much. I don’t expect you to agree with that. But I think it is still possible for history to vindicate the book. It hasn’t so far, but that doesn’t mean it never will. The book clearly has its weaknesses. There’s no doubt about that. But I think it has a lot of good to offer that I won’t dismiss over issues I cannot personally verify.
    Keep up the good work. Sorry I don’t debate well. I hope my thoughts aren’t totally useless anyway.

    Thanks,

    Jared

    • I might add that I think parables are perfectly valid ways to teach truth whether or not they have any historical relevance. Also symbols are a valid way to teach truth, even though they are not the “real thing” but are just dumb symbols which may have essentially no value at all in and of themselves. Their value is in the truths locked within them alone.

      Jared

    • I get what you mean Jared, and I agree with you mostly. I totally understand that a book could teach a saving truth without being historically true.

      For me, I have already concluded that The Book of Mormon is not historically true — this is not something I even wanted to believe, but truth is not always convenient. It just is. Once I concluded it was not true, and the evidence was overwhelmingly against my cherished beliefs, I decided to move to stage 2: Where did the book come from? I hypothesized that it was a product of ordinary authorship, and so far I cannot find anything that refutes this hypothesis, so I believe it is the correct one.

      I can see the value of many principles in The Book of Mormon, but if it isn’t historically true, then its value drops substantially for me. The author was either lying, delusional, or a pious fraud. Can a pious fraud provide wisdom? Yes, I have a book right beside me that was written by a modern pious fraud, and it also contains a lot of wisdom. But I suppose the reliability of this wisdom is quite sketchy. It’s diluted by too many assumptions, half truths, questionable ethics, and other problems.

      Should I use The Book of Mormon as an ethical guide?

      If we are here to learn to be more godlike, then perhaps The Book of Mormon can teach us basic principles. *hehe*

      For example, if one of our children are acting naughty, we are taught to curse them, turn their skin black and make that child’s posterity suffer. All this instead of sending them proper therapists? How wise, how loving.

      Teach your children that white is pure and delight-some, while dark skin is associated with evil. How respectful, how kind.

      Next, teach them that when a voice pops into their heads “chop off the sleeping man’s head!” they should ignore their gentler natures and obey. KILL! Obedience is more important than kindness, so we must teach our children to kill defenseless people on command, all because a voice inside their head told them to. How wise, how merciful.

      When someone believes differently, tie him up. Yes I’m talking about Korihor. We must teach our children that they should make an example of people that believe differently. Strike them dumb, and have them trampled to death as an object lesson. How tolerant, how understanding.

      Missionary work is important, we must change other people’s beliefs! So teach your children to chop off arms to convince others that God is backing you up. How peaceful, how loving.

      The book fails on all levels of investigation, and yet people will believe in it. Why? Because subjective experiences have been promoted over critical thinking. How intelligent, how wise.

      I’m just playing around here, but you get the idea. To me, these are obvious problems that I completely ignored until my critical thinking skills started kicking into full gear. What I mean by critical thinking, is the ability to evenly apply the same criticisms we have against our opponents as we would to our own vital and most emotionally invested beliefs. It is the ability to reason effectively, and if we come to the realization that we could be wrong, we need to have the humility, integrity and courage to change our minds.

      As my friend Anthony likes to say “I was humbled by the evidence.”

      • Now I think you’re starting to talk about issues that have more substance. To me, those are more interesting questions. I believe there are real answers to them as well. I think this is where you start to reach a more significant limitation of the book. The people spoken of throughout the book are not a “Zion” people. It is a book of a fallen people who were destroyed. Even the group that is generally considered to be “more righteous” continually failed throughout and in the end were destroyed, not the other group. When there is a moment of “success” it gets covered with basically just one page and very little detail. I think that was deliberate. The book is not supposed to create dependance upon it and become a substitute for God. You should not become dependant upon it for all you know. At some point you have to stop relying on it as your justification for what you do and get answers directly from God. It even says so as it opens that door with: “Come unto me, O ye Gentiles, and I will show unto you the greater things, the knowledge which is hid up because of unbelief.” (Ether 4:13). So if you hold the book of Mormon up like it is this “gold standard”, you’re just going to fail in a different way. It should never be used as a substitute for God. I suppose that it allows those who are foolish enough to buy into it, to justify wicked behavior (racism, for example — but if you notice Jacob warned them not to fall into that trap when he told the Nephites that their skin color was a false virtue because they were actually more wicked than the Lamanites, who would be better off in the day of judgment because the Nephites wanted more than one wife). On that end of the scale, it allows those who hold the book as a dumb idol to be damned as well.

        • I mostly agree. It sounds like we agree the book is not always ethical, and not very historical? I am not concerned with the “wickedness” of the fallen people in that book — I’m talking about how an all loving, all wise, Ruler of the Universe deals with problems. He teaches Nephi to murder, teaches to obey based on spurious information, teaches Nephi to steal, teaches Nephi to lie, burns people, curses people, strikes them dumb for not believing, sinks their cities, threatens people and murders them in creative ways. All of this he does without providing proper therapies, and treatments. In fact he compounds the problems by adding more fear and confusion to an already fallen people, gives them a system that produces pride and corruption, provides poor advice, and helps his children slaughter one another (ie. stripling warriors…), rather than finding diplomatic solutions. I did not provide a comprehensive list of the book’s ethical issues, but I think it teaches about 65% good and 35% unethical principles (Perhaps one day, I will make a list). So if I read it for the 65%, then I suppose I can appreciate those good principles. However, the greatest value it gives me now, is in teaching me critical thinking skills — or how NOT to run a planet. ;)

          • I probably should have said a few things a bit differently because what I wrote can be taken different from what I intended but I won’t quibble over it. I think the book generally provides a guide of failure. In that sense you are right. It is a book of how you hope things do not work out on a planet. I believe there are a few rare individuals who break that cycle for themselves but in general the result is failure.
            I also believe that a problem we have is that when God does communicate with someone, we tend to think that it automatically should take on universal application. I don’t believe that is the case at all. It’s the whole child’s argument of, “If you let him, then why don’t you let me? That’s not fair!” question. That becomes especially obvious in the case of Nephi slaying Laban and other examples. If God wants Laban dead, why doesn’t He just do it Himself? Why would God involve Nephi in the process? What would Nephi gain from that experience? Is Laban losing his life really worth it? If God really ever did involve someone in that kind of thing, would that automatically mean that I am justified taking that liberty for myself?
            Are universal ethics the highest standard that God can require of anyone? Would God ever command someone, anyone, to do something that is universally unethical? Why would God not always treat mortal life like it is the most important thing in the universe? What could be more important than that?

            To me, these kinds of questions are more important than trying to resolve a history debate. These things can affect my own soul and what I do. I don’t think my entrance into heaven will be contigent upon passing a history quiz. It’s not that history is unimportant, but that it yields to things which are more important to me.

          • Thank you for your response Jared.

            This is a serious topic, that warrants a serious reply. And it breaks my heart, to address this with you, because I would rather bring more happiness to the suffering people in this world. I would rather build a better future for humanity. I would rather move on and help save lives, improve people’s health, solve inequality and hunger problems. But my mind was once locked up, and my life was not my own. I didn’t know how to test reality. I didn’t know how to think rationally. And I was asleep, like a drone in someone’s maze. Now that I’m out, I look back and I’m disappointed that nobody tried to reach out to help me sooner. I can go to youtube and watch video after video of people testifying of their sacred spiritual experiences that lead them to Islam, or Catholicism. I think of how these experiences lock these individuals into different faiths. And there they stay, each thinking they have found it.

            Life has called me down this road so that I can help others. I don’t know what brought you here to this site, but I hope you and I can gain wisdom by our meeting. :)

            I know The Book of Mormon is special to you — so it’s hard to see it any other way than you do. And I wish I knew of a more eloquent way to explain what I have learned.

            Here is what you wrote:

            “Would God ever command someone, anyone, to do something that is universally unethical? Why would God not always treat mortal life like it is the most important thing in the universe? What could be more important than that?”

            Let’s focus on this one issue: Nephi slaying Laban by the command of a purported voice in his head, so that he can steal the plates.

            Would this hold up in court? Is this a good principle to live by? Was it fair to Laban’s children?

            If you still can’t see it clearly, let us imagine this happened for real… in a much more personal way.

            You awake one morning, go to your mother’s room, and in a horrible scene, find that her head has been severed from her body. The police eventually catch the perpetrator, and question him. He explains his behavior to you in this way:

            “There was a voice in my head that told me to retrieve a rare Shinto religious item from your mother. The voice assured me it was the correct thing to do since it would pave the way for more Shinto conversions, which is the most important thing in the Universe. God needs more Shintos, so I had to severe your mother’s head from her body while she slept. This allowed me to sneak into her dresser drawer undetected, steal the Shinto object, and even disguise myself as your mother when someone awoke during the night. Praise be to the Shinto God. This experience taught me so much courage, and it also helped me realize that Shinto conversions are way more important than human life, so it really was a good thing. Even if I must live out the remainder of my days in prison, I will know that I did the right thing.”

            Now, I realize the above is very disturbing. At least it is to me. In fact, this is often how I feel about The Book of Mormon. I imagine Laban’s 3 year old daughter waking up the next morning, running outside to meet her father, only to see him naked on the ground with his head removed from his body. All in the name of religion.

            Now of course I don’t believe this actually happened. It’s fiction. And it is likely attributable to the mind of a young man who did not have his own kids. But what are the consequences of taking this book seriously?

            Have you heard of the Lafferty case? Ron and Dan Lafferty were born and raised Mormon. They actually believed in The Book of Mormon, and followed it’s principles. “In 1984, Ron and Dan Lafferty murdered the wife and infant daughter of their younger brother Allen. The crimes were noteworthy not merely for their brutality but for the brothers’ claim that they were acting on direct orders from God.”

            “I was doing God’s will, which is not a crime.” – Dan Lafferty

            http://www.amazon.com/Under-Banner-Heaven-Story-Violent/dp/1400032806

            But talking about this breaks my heart. These are disgusting things. There are much better books out there, with much wiser words. I feel sad that people are taught to follow subjective voices and transcendent feelings rather than ethics, love or reason. I know your mind and heart are most likely set on this book, and nothing will deter you. Perhaps you have never questioned the nature of mystical experiences. Perhaps you think these personal experiences do not serve to lock others into their own faiths. Perhaps this book holds a special place in your heart. If so, then I encourage you to find the good in it, but rise above it. Find ways to treat people better than God treated the Nephites. Live wiser than it teaches, commit yourself to a life of love, honesty and integrity.

          • If the Nephi/Laban thing was based on an actual event, we will never know the full story, culture or background, as with any Biblical stories that sound heinous. We have the luxury of at least the claim to a fair ahem uncorrupted judicial system in modern times that protects all its citizens and condemns the unjust. How did Laban obtain the plates in the first place? If he was willing to kill Nephi to get his father’s riches, who is to say the plates weren’t obtained the same way. Heck maybe the plates used to be Nephi’s uncle Habeeb’s till Laban killed him and took them. They were like “that’s cool, here have everything we own if we can just have that scrap of brass you took from us with our genealogy.” This Laban dude obviously had a reputation. Nephi protected his family and obtained the plates by killing Laban who was obviously in a place of power and above the law. He made a judgement call that only he could have in that situation. Who are we to judge him based on the outlined description of events crammed onto limited pages. Plates don’t grow on trees ya know :D I’m afraid I’m guilty of doing an inner fistpump when the badguys die at the hand of Bruce Willis in Die-Hard. Your comparison to a crazy family misinterpreting the scriptures to justify murder is pretty obtuse.

  41. Have you ever considered running your algorythm against the so called “Sealed Portion of the Book of Mormon”? Some guy named Christopher Nemelka claims that he is the reincarnated Hyrum Smith and claims to have translated the sealed portion of the Book of Mormon.

    I think it would be very, very interesting to run it through and see what it correlates with. I think this could serve a few purposes.

    If it comes up with different sources than the Book of Mormon and helps identify what it’s sources were, then it lends more credibility to the algorithm. Few people will believe in both books, yet if they were written by the same author it should be identical. It should be possible to find other writings of Christophers as well to demonstrate whether he wrote it.

    For Mormons who believe in the BoM, but would be skeptical of the sealed portion, it makes it creates cognitive dissonance because the algorithm reinforces their belief that it isn’t true, showing that the algorithm is good and it makes it a little more difficult to discount the results you’ve already found.

    I personally would be interested anyways just because I think this type of n-gram comparisons are freaking awesome.

    If you decide to, the sealed portion can be found at http://marvelousworkandawonder.com/tsp/download/TSPSecured.pdf

  42. Thank you for this analysis and data. Very eye-opening to understand the literary style of the time. Whether or not Joseph Smith/Oliver Cowdry/others read these or heard such phrases in the social circles they apprised themselves or both, its obvious they influenced the format of the book and how the meaning was expressed. Phrasing of The Late War, or Elizabethan style, takes on a wondrous tone. Take for instance, the description of the steamboat and torpedoes…its written as if to suppressed/Victorian women in petticoats who never leave the house to “ooh and ah” over. I’ve skimmed old travel books of the time with the aim of inspiring wonder. I wonder, if Aliens came to earth and initiated public contact with our species, our initial literary description of the excitement of its newness might in later years when aliens become commonplace be snickered at.
    The purpose of this data analysis seems to be aimed at finding literary influence, and there it must stop. It leaves several possibilities as to the “Translation” of the BoM: 1. It was written by J.S. and/or others. or 2. A translator, when they come to understand the intent or meaning of what is said, must somehow convey that to another using theirs or the recipients’ vocabulary and even style. Had the gold plates and translating eyepiece been real, someone with limited writing ability like J.S. might struggle with expressing the meaning unless he obtained the proper vocabulary to draw from or God himself put the words into him to say. A careful skeptic would prefer the latter as evidence of its validity. In all cases, it must somehow reach the intended audience…the people of the time. The KJ vs. New World translation of the Bible comes to mind.
    This study raises more questions than answers about the BoM’s origin, and I think that is a good thing. A sarcastic Mormon’s response to studies like these can be found here: its worth a look as another perspective on the equation. http://www.nauvootimes.com/cgi-bin/nauvoo_column.pl?number=101911&author=jeff-lindsay

  43. Very interesting. Given some resemblances between Muggletonian beliefs and what J Smith said about creation I was surprised the Reeve and Muggleton Epistles didn’t score higher. However, I suggest anyone wanting to understand the Muggletonian beliefs would likely have consulted ‘A Transcendent Spiritual Treatise’ by Reeve and ‘A Divine Looking-Glass’ by Reeve and Muggleton – the two foundation texts from 1652 and 1656. Later editions were certainly available in New England (at least before c. 1776) as correspondence shows. It would be interesting so see whether using these volumes raised the score. I would be interested to see which n-grams were found relating the volume of Epistles you used: thank you. Ken

  44. Pingback: Utah and the Book of Mormon | Я УЧУСЬ

  45. How many of the books compared to the BoM claim to be revelations of God? If Joseph’s book had been called a “romance” at the time, it would have been fine. The claims that it is the word of God are what worries me.

  46. The resources included in the links only deal with closed set stylistic attribution. Splitting the Book of Mormon into sections–possibly along lines indicated by your ISS comparisons–might be a good way to identify a pastiche of styles/sources. You still have the problems of determining if closed set attribution is sufficient, or if an open set approach is needed, but this is one way to start that might be very straight forward given the data sets and source text files you have already assembled.

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